There is variability in our perception of the standard head orientation. GN Hughes, J Gateño, JD English, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.

Date: May 2017 (On-line).
Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to determine: (1) whether an observer’s perception of the correct anatomical alignment of the head changes with time, and (2) whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment. To determine whether the perception of the correct anatomical alignment changes with time (intra-observer comparison), a group of 30 observers were asked to orient, into anatomical alignment, the three-dimensional (3D) head photograph of a normal man, on two separate occasions. To determine whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment (inter-observer comparison), the observed orientations were compared. The results of intra-observer comparisons showed substantial variability between the first and second anatomical alignments. Bland–Altman coefficients of repeatability for pitch, yaw, and roll, were 6.9°, 4.4°, and 2.4°, respectively. The results of inter-observer comparisons showed that the agreement for roll was good (sample variance 0.4, standard deviation (SD) 0.7°), the agreement for yaw was moderate (sample variance 2.0, SD 1.4°), and the agreement for pitch was poor (sample variance 15.5, SD 3.9°). In conclusion, the perception of correct anatomical alignment changes considerably with time. Different observers disagree on the correct anatomical alignment. Agreement among multiple observers was bad for pitch, moderate for yaw, and good for roll.

Article: There is variability in our perception of the standard head orientation.
Authors: GN Hughes, J Gateño, JD English, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA.

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