The influence of dexamethasone on postoperative swelling and neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial. W Semper-Hogg, MA Fuessinger, TW Dirlewanger, CP Cornelius, MC Metzger.

Date: November 2017.
Source: Head & Face Medicine 2017 13:19.
Background: Orthognathic surgery is associated with considerable swelling and neurosensory disturbances. Serious swelling can lead to great physical and psychological strain. A randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was realized in order to evaluate the effect of a preoperative intravenous dexamethasone injection of 40 mg on postoperative swelling and neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery.
Methods: Thirty-eight patients (27 male and 11 female) patients, all with the indication for an orthognathic surgery, were enrolled in this study (mean age: 27.63 years, range: 16–61 years) and randomly divided into two groups (study group/ control group). Both groups underwent either maxillary and/or mandibular osteotomies, resulting in three subgroups according to surgical technique (A: LeFort I osteotomy, B: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), C: bimaxillary osteotomy). The study group received a single preoperative intravenous injection of 40 mg dexamethasone. Facial edema was measured by 3dMD surface scans on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 14th and 90th postoperative day. Furthermore, neurosensory disturbances on the 2nd, 5th, 14th and 90th postoperative day were investigated by thermal stimulation.
Results: Facial edema after LeFort I osteotomy, BSSO and bimaxillary osteotomy showed a significant decrease in the study group compared to the control group (P = 0.048, P = 0.045, P < 0.001). The influence of dexamethasone on neurosensory disturbances was not significant for the inferior alveolar nerve (P = 0.746) or the infraorbital nerve (P = 0.465).
Conclusions: Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery should receive a preoperative injection of dexamethasone in order to control and reduce edema. However, there was no influence of dexamethasone on reduction of neurosensory disturbances.

Article: The influence of dexamethasone on postoperative swelling and neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Authors: W Semper-Hogg, MA Fuessinger, TW Dirlewanger, CP Cornelius, MC Metzger.