The 3D Facial Norms Database: Part 1. A Web-Based Craniofacial Anthropometric and Image Repository for the Clinical and Research Community.

Date: November 2016. Source: Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal, 53(6) pp. e185–e197. Background: Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology […]

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Using the 3D Facial Norms Database to investigate craniofacial sexual dimorphism in healthy children, adolescents, and adults. MJ Kesterke, ZD Raffensperger, CL Heike, ML Cunningham, JT Hecht, CH Kau, NL Nidey, LM Moreno, GL Wehby, ML Marazita, and SM Weinberg.

Date: April 2016 Source: Biology of Sex Differences. Background: Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology at different ages. […]

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No evidence for sexual dimorphism of facial width-to-height ratio in four large adult samples. CE Lefevrea, GJ Lewisb, TC Batesc, M Dzhelyovaa, V Coetzeed, IJ Dearyc, DI Perretta.

Date: June 2012. Source: Evolution & Human Behavior. Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 623-627. Abstract: Sexual dimorphism in physical appearance may be an important cue in both intra- and intersex competition. Recently, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a novel sexually dimorphic morphologic measure, with men suggested to have a higher […]

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Sexual Dimorphism in Soft Tissue Facial Form as captured by Digital Three-Dimensional Photogrammetry. SB Lim

Date: June 2012 Source: University of Pittsburgh, School of Dental Medicine Abstract: Sexual dimorphism in the head and neck area is a particular interest to orthodontists who manipulate the underlying hard tissue in order to alter the overlaying soft tissue. Hard tissue differences between the sexes have been well documented in the literature with the […]

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