Surgical Planning: 2D to 3D. PK Patel, LP Zhao, JW Ferraro.

Date: October 2014
Source: Ferraro’s Fundamentals of Maxillofacial Surgery. Springer New York, pp 331-367.
Abstract: Surgeons and orthodontists are faced with the practical problem of objectively assessing a patient’s dentofacial skeletal deformity. Maxillofacial surgical planning is a multilevel process. It involves incorporating the clinical assessment of the soft-tissue envelop, the underlying facial skeletal structures, and the dentition. All three elements must be assessed independently and then as a composite to understand the deformity and the reconstruction required.

Article: Surgical Planning: 2D to 3D.
Authors: Pravin K. Patel MD, FACS, Linping Zhao PhD, James W. Ferraro DDS, MD.