Influence of involuntary facial expressions on reproducibility of 3D stereophotogrammetry in children with and without complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 to 18 months of age. Brons, S; Darroudi, A; Nada, R et al.

Date: June 2018.
Source: Clinical Oral Investigations.
Objective: To assess the influence of involuntary facial expressions on 3D facial stereophotogrammetry reproducibility in children with and without unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) aged 3–18 months.
Methods: Three to eight 3D facial images per time point were acquired within 10 min of 31 children with UCLP and 50 controls at 3, 12 and 18 months of age. 3D mapping of two 3D facial images per subject per age was performed. Distance kits of the full face and nasolabial area were calculated.
Results: In the total subject pool, mean variation between two 3D facial images ranged from 0.38–0.88 mm. There were no significant differences within groups for the various ages. Variation between controls and UCLP subjects did not differ significantly. Variation was higher in the nasolabial area than in the full face.
Conclusions: The influence of involuntary facial expressions on the estimation of facial growth should not be underestimated, especially in the nasolabial region of UCLP subjects aged 3 months. To improve 3D facial imaging reliability, image capturing should be performed by a trained photographer following a meticulous image capturing protocol, including thorough review after capture.
Relevance: Facial 3D stereophotogrammetry is a useful tool for monitoring facial growth longitudinally in young children with facial deformities, as no radiation is involved and image capture is easy and fast. It can be performed reliably in children with and without UCLP aged 3–18 months by an experienced photographer utilising a meticulous image capturing protocol.

Article: Influence of involuntary facial expressions on reproducibility of 3D stereophotogrammetry in children with and without complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 to 18 months of age.
Authors: Sander Brons, Amir Darroudi, Rania Nada, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Rinaldo Vreeken, Stefaan J Berge, Thomas Maal, Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman. Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.