In-vivo quantification of human breast deformation associated with the position change from supine to upright. H Khatam, GP Reece, MC Fingeret, MK Markey, K Ravi-Chandar.

Date: January 2015.
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics, 37(1):13-22.
Abstract: Stereophotographic imaging and digital image correlation are used to determine the variation of breast skin deformation as the subject orientation is altered from supine to upright. A change in subject’s position from supine to upright can result in significant stretches in some parts of the breast skin. The maximum of the major principal stretch ratio of the skin is different in different subjects and varies in the range of 1.25–1.60. It is also found that the boundaries of the breast move significantly relative to the skeletal structure and other fixed points such as the sternal notch. Such measurements are crucial since they provide basic data for validation of biomechanical breast models based on finite element formulations.

Article: In-vivo quantification of human breast deformation associated with the position change from supine to upright.
Authors: Hamed Khatam; Gregory P. Reece; Michelle C. Fingeret; Mia K. Markey; Krishnaswamy Ravi-Chandar.