Hypertelorism and Orofacial Clefting Revisited: An Anthropometric Investigation. SM Weinberg, EJ Leslie, JT Hecht, GL Wehby, FWB Deleyiannis, LM Moreno, K Christensen, ML Marazita.
Date: June 2016. ONLINE AHEAD OF PRINT
Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal.
Objective: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging, we tested whether different forms of clefting showed evidence of increased interorbital distance.
Methods: Intercanthal and outercanthal distances and intercanthal indices were calculated from 3D facial surface images of 287 individuals with repaired OFCs. Raw measurements were converted to sex and age-normalized Z-scores. Mean Z-scores for individuals with cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) were compared with reference normative values (controls) and one another directly using t tests and analysis of variance.
Results: The CLP group showed a significant increase in intercanthal width (P = .001) and intercanthal index (P < .001) compared with reference norms. The CP group showed a significant decrease (P < .001) in outercanthal width. The CL group showed no difference from reference norms. The proportion of clinically hyperteloric individuals was generally low but highest in the CLP group (7.4%). Cleft severity had little effect on interorbital spacing. Conclusions: Individuals with CLP exhibited on average a tendency toward mild hypertelorism, driven primarily by an increase in intercanthal distance. This tendency was not seen in CL or CP.
Article: Hypertelorism and Orofacial Clefting Revisited: An Anthropometric Investigation.
Authors: Seth M. Weinberg, Elizabeth J. Leslie, Jacqueline T. Hecht, George L. Wehby, Frederic W.B. Deleyiannis, Lina M. Moreno, Kaare Christensen, Mary L. Marazita. University of Pittsburgh, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, University of Iowa, Children’s Hospital of Colorado,