Evaluation of facial asymmetry in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Correlation between hard tissue and soft tissue landmarks. S Economou, P Stoustrup, KD Kristensen, M Dalstra, A Küseler, T Herlin, TK Pedersen.

Date: May 2018.
Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 153, Issue 5, Pages 662–672.
Hightlights:
• Soft-tissue and hard-tissue asymmetries in JIA patients are correlated.
• In JIA patients, asymmetries are most pronounced in the lower facial third.
• Glabella had the least deviation.
• Pogonion presented the largest level of deviation.
• Professionals could identify facial asymmetry beyond a cutoff threshold of 2mm.
Introduction: The aims of this study were to assess the correlation between facial hard and soft tissue asymmetry in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, to identify valid soft tissue points for clinical examination, and to assess the smallest clinically detectable level of dentofacial asymmetry.
Methods: Full-face cone-beam computed tomography scans and 3-dimensional photographs were used to assess facial hard and soft tissue asymmetry in 21 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A survey was conducted to assess how asymmetry is perceived observationally based on cone-beam computed tomography scans and 3-dimensional photographs.
Results: Significant linear correlations were seen between the hard and soft tissue landmark deviations at both the transverse and vertical positions. Among medial soft tissue points, glabella had the smallest deviation and pogonion the largest deviation from the midsagittal plane. Professionals could identify facial asymmetry based on images beyond a cutoff threshold of 2mm for both pogonion and gonion.
Conclusions: Soft tissue pogonion and gonion were identified as the most appropriate landmarks to clinically predict hard tissue facial asymmetry. Facial asymmetries are most pronounced in the lower facial third in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Professionals can accurately identify asymmetry exceeding 2mm.

Article: Evaluation of facial asymmetry in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Correlation between hard tissue and soft tissue landmarks.
Authors: Stalo Economou, Peter Stoustrup, Kasper Dahl Kristensen, Michel Dalstra, Annelise Küseler, Troels Herlin, Thomas Klit Pedersen, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.