Three-Dimensional Assessment of Morphological Changes Following Nasoalveolar Molding Therapy in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Case Report. E Staderini, R Patini, A Camodeca, F Guglielmi, P Gallenzi.
Date: March 2019. Source: Dentistry Journal, 7(1), 27. Abstract: The applications of computer-guided technologies for three-dimensional image analysis provide a unique opportunity to quantify the morphological dimensional changes of the face in a practical and convenient way. Symmetry of the nasolabial area is one of the main factors of facial attractiveness as well as being […]Read More
Quantifying faces three-dimensionally in orthodontic practice. C Tanikawa, O Akcam, K Takada.
Date: March 2019. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery (ONLINE). Objective: The purpose of this study was to formulate and demonstrate a method for quantifying and visualizing the three-dimensional (3-D) configuration of the soft tissues of the face at rest to facilitate a quantitative and instantaneous understanding of a patient’s static facial form characteristics. Materials and […]Read More
Lip position analysis of young women with different skeletal patterns during posed smiling using 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetry. H Li, T Cao, H Zhou, Y Hou.
Date: January 2019. Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 1, Pages 64-70. Highlights: • Posed smile, lip position, and skeletal patterns were investigated in young women. • Significant differences were found in interlabial gap and in the vertical, average, and horizontal groups. • Intercommissural width did not differ significantly among […]Read More
Nasolabial shape differences and esthetics in unilateral cleft lip and palate: A comparison of nasolabial shape using a mean 3D facial template. MA Kuijpers, TJ Maal, JW Meulstee, CE Carels, EM Bronkhorst, SJ Bergé, PS Fudalej.
Date: November 2018. Source: 3D imaging in patients with orofacial clefts. Chapter 6. Objective: To determine the amount of deviation in nasolabial shape in patients with a cleft, compared with an average non-cleft face, and assess whether this difference was related to nasolabial esthetics. Methods: 3D stereophotogrammetric images of 60 patients with a unilateral cleft […]Read More
Combined use of a facial scanner and an intraoral scanner to acquire a digital scan for the fabrication of an orbital prosthesis. H Liu, S Bai. X Yu, Y Zhao.
Date: November 2018 ONLINE. Source: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Abstract: For a patient with a unilateral orbital defect, an esthetic orbital prosthesis plays an essential role in enhancing quality of life. This technique describes the combined use of a facial scanner and an intraoral scanner to acquire the digital scan for the design and […]Read More
Anatomic approximation approach to correction of transverse facial clefts. RW Tse, RJ Knight, DM Fisher.
Date: November 2018. Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 71, Issue 11, pp 1600-1608. Abstract: Transverse clefts of the oral cavity have significant impacts on both appearance and function. Many methods of repair have been described, but there is no consensus on optimal approach. In addition, dissatisfaction with scars, distortion of appearance, […]Read More
Challenges with Life Surface Imaging. L Zou, R Richard, J Blythe, N Donos.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Lifong ZOU Session: Technical Session 3: 3D Face & Body Scanning in Medicine Abstract: Stereo photogrammetry has a clear role in clinical research, treatment planning and effectiveness assessment within the domain of medicine and dentistry. Recently more computational automatic […]Read More
Both the Observer’s Expertise and the Subject’s Facial Symmetry Can Affect Anatomical Position of the Head. PH Sutton, J Gateno, JD English, J Paranilam, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.
Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: It is easier for us to judge facial deformity when the patient’s head is in anatomic position. The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) if a group of expert observers agree more than a group of non-experts on what is the correct […]Read More
Esthetic evaluation of facial cheek volume: A study using 3D stereophotogrammetry, J Feng, HY Yu, YJ Yin, YQ Yan, Z Wang, D Bai, XL Han.
Date: October 2018. Source: The Angle Orthodontist. Objective: To investigate the influence of cheek volume on facial esthetics judged by orthodontists and non-specialists. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female’s natural and smiling face was captured by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Cheek volume of the 3dMD image was altered to different degrees three-dimensionally. For the natural and smiling […]Read More
Three‑Dimensional Evaluation of the Effect of Low‑Level Laser Therapy on Facial Swelling after Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. F Asutay, A Ozcan-Kucuk, H Alan, M Koparal.
Date: August 2018. Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Purpose: : This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a low‑level laser therapy (LLLT) on pain, trismus, and swelling of patients whose impacted 3rd molar tooth was extracted compared to placebo or “sham” treatment and measure volumetrically the edema with a three‑dimensional (3D) surface imaging […]Read More
Hemimandibular Hyperplasia Correction by Simultaneous Orthognathic Surgery and Condylectomy Under Digital Guidance. Bi Han, X Wang, Z Li et al.
Date: July 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 1563.e1-1563.e18. Objective: Orthognathic surgery with simultaneous condylectomy under digital guidance has been proved to be a feasible method to treat hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and precision of correction of HH by […]Read More
Influence of involuntary facial expressions on reproducibility of 3D stereophotogrammetry in children with and without complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 to 18 months of age. Brons, S; Darroudi, A; Nada, R et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Clinical Oral Investigations. Objective: To assess the influence of involuntary facial expressions on 3D facial stereophotogrammetry reproducibility in children with and without unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) aged 3–18 months. Methods: Three to eight 3D facial images per time point were acquired within 10 min of 31 children with […]Read More
Assessment of regional asymmetry of the face before and after surgical correction of unilateral cleft lip. D Al-Rudainy, FV Mehendale et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 974-978. Abstract: This study was carried out on 26 unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) cases with mean age 3.6 ± 0.7 months. 3D facial images were captured for each infant 2–3 days before the repair of cleft lip and at 4 […]Read More
Upper Lip Asymmetry During Smiling: An Analysis Using Three-Dimensional Images. A Mathis, DM Laskin, E Tüfekçi, C Caricco, SJ Lindauer.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Turkish Orthodontics; 31: 32-6. Objective: : The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional images to determine the presence of upper lip asymmetry at rest and during smiling in a group of individuals with no history of orthodontics or facial cosmetic surgery. Methods: Standardized three-dimensional frontal resting and smiling […]Read More
Female Facial Attractiveness Assessed from Three-Dimensional Contour Lines by University Students. J Jirathamopas, YF Liao, EWC Ko, YR Chen, CS Huang.
Date: May 2018. Source: Dentistry Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, 16. Background: Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines should […]Read More
Evaluation of facial asymmetry in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Correlation between hard tissue and soft tissue landmarks. S Economou, P Stoustrup, KD Kristensen, M Dalstra, A Küseler, T Herlin, TK Pedersen.
Date: May 2018. Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 153, Issue 5, Pages 662–672. Hightlights: • Soft-tissue and hard-tissue asymmetries in JIA patients are correlated. • In JIA patients, asymmetries are most pronounced in the lower facial third. • Glabella had the least deviation. • Pogonion presented the largest level of deviation. […]Read More
Test-retest reliability of smile tasks using three-dimensional facial topography. C Tanikawa, K Takada.
Date: May 2018. Source: Angle Orthodontist, Vol 88, No 3, pp 319–328. Objective: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of three types of facial expression tasks using three-dimensional (3D) facial topography. Methods: Twelve adult volunteers were enrolled in this study. They were instructed to perform three different facial expression tasks: rest posture, posed smile, and maximum […]Read More
Three-dimensional photography for the evaluation of facial profiles in obstructive sleep apnoea. SW Lin, K Sutherland, YF Liao, PA Cistulli, LP Chuang, YT Chou, CH Chang, CS Lee, LF Li, NH Chen.
Date: February 2018. Source: Respirology, 10.1111/resp.13261. Background and Objective: Craniofacial structure is an important determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome risk. Three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD) is a novel technique which allows quantification of the craniofacial profile. This study compares the facial images of OSA patients captured by 3dMD to three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) and […]Read More
3D Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Patients With Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. I Bagante, I Zepa, I Akota.
Date: December 2017. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Rhinoplasty in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) is challenging, and the surgical outcome of the nose is complicated to evaluate. The aim of this study was to assess the nasolabial appearance of patients with UCLP compared with a control group. Design: Cross-sectional […]Read More
A three-dimensional method for evaluating changes in lip morphology following correction of functional anterior crossbite. C Jogaki, W Tome, F Kuroyanagi, N Kitai.
Date: December 2017. Source: Orthodontic Waves, Volume 76, Issue 4, Pages 226-231. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to present a three-dimensional method for evaluating changes in lip morphology and to apply the method to the therapy evaluation following the correction of functional anterior crossbite. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five Japanese patients (age: 6 […]Read More
The influence of dexamethasone on postoperative swelling and neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial. W Semper-Hogg, MA Fuessinger, TW Dirlewanger, CP Cornelius, MC Metzger.
Date: November 2017. Source: Head & Face Medicine 2017 13:19. Background: Orthognathic surgery is associated with considerable swelling and neurosensory disturbances. Serious swelling can lead to great physical and psychological strain. A randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was realized in order to evaluate the effect of a preoperative intravenous dexamethasone injection of 40 mg on […]Read More
Three-dimensional analysis of the effect of expansion and/or protraction on oropharyngeal volume and MCA in nonsyndromic CLP/CLCP children. J GAO, N ALREJAYE, S OBEROI.
Date: October 2017. Source: UCSF School of Dentistry Research and Clinical Excellence Day 2017 Program. UCSF students and research trainees present their work through posters and oral presentations to the School of Dentistry community and includes more than 60 presentations and draws more than 400 attendees. Objective: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most […]Read More
A clinical technique for virtual articulator mounting with natural head position by using calibrated stereophotogrammetry. WYH Lam, RTC Hsung, WWS Choi, et al.
Date: September 2017. Source: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (Online). Abstract: Accurate articulator-mounted casts are essential for occlusion analysis and for fabrication of dental prostheses. Although the axis orbital plane has been commonly used as the reference horizontal plane, some clinicians prefer to register the horizontal plane with a spirit level when the patient is […]Read More
Evaluation of Head Position in Static and Dynamic Three-Dimensional Imaging: a review of the Literature. M Kjærgaard Larsen, TH Thygesen.
Date: August 2017. Source: International Journal of Oral and Craniofacial Science, 3(2), pp 34-38. Background: : The interest in three-dimensional imaging in orthognathic treatment planning has been growing, especially for evaluation of the natural head position. Several three-dimensional devices are available on the market. Three-dimensional evaluation of the patient will probably soon be a standard […]Read More
Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients: Do the assessment methods measure the same outcome? DGM Mosmuller, TJ Maal, C Prahl, RA Tan, FJ Mulder, RMF Schwirtz, HCW de Vet, SJ Bergé, JPW Don Griot.
Date: August 2017. Source: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 45(8):1220-1226. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2017.04.004. Objective: For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. Methods: The data and ratings from an […]Read More
THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVALUATION OF CLASS III TREATMENT OF A 6 YEAR OLD BOY WITH THE FRÄNKEL FUNCTION REGULATOR III MODIFIED APPLIANCE. BK Đokić, A Zhurov, S Richmond, M Ovsenik.
Date: June 2017. Source: 93rd Congress of the European Orthodontic Society 2017. Montreux, Switzerland. Aim: To objectively demonstrate the changes of soft tissues after use of a Fränkel functional regulator III (FFR III) modified appliance (Farčnik, 2008) of a skeletal Class III malocclusion Subject and Methods: Clinical examination of the 6 year old boy revealed […]Read More
Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate. J Lee, B Ku, PD Combs et al.
Date: June 2017. Source: 3D Research (2017) 8:19. doi:10.1007/s13319-017-0128-9. Abstract: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group […]Read More
The Effects of Objective 3D Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness. CD Hatch, GL Wehby, NL Nidey, LM Moreno Uribe.
Date: May 2017 Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. We evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. Patient and Methods: […]Read More
There is variability in our perception of the standard head orientation. GN Hughes, J Gateño, JD English, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.
Date: May 2017 (On-line). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: The purposes of this study were to determine: (1) whether an observer’s perception of the correct anatomical alignment of the head changes with time, and (2) whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment. To determine whether the perception of the […]Read More
Correlation between the incisors axis inclination and the exposure of the vermilion. E Candida, S Summa, I D’Apolito, C Strappa, R Deli.
Date: April 2017. Source: XXIV Congresso Nazionale Collegio dei Docenti Universitari di Discipline Odontostomatologiche, Milano, Italy. Objective: the enhancement of the lips through cosmetic techniques is a popular procedure. In literature there are not many studies which demonstrate all the aspects that influence this area which is so important for patients. Orthodontic biomechanics related to […]Read More
Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients. DGM Mosmuller, TJJ Maal, C Prahl, RA Tan, FJ Mulder, RMF Schwirtz, HCW de Vet, SJ Bergé, JPW Don Griot.
Date: April 2017 (ONLINE) Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Objective: For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. Methods: The data and ratings from an earlier […]Read More
Analysis of Digital Documentation. KH Breuning, CH Kau.
Date: March 2017. Source: Digital Planning and Custom Orthodontic Treatment, First Edition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 4: Analysis of Digital Documentation. Authors: K. Hero Breuning and Chung H. Kau.Read More
Comprehensive treatment approach for condylar hyperplasia and mandibular crowding with custom lingual braces and 2-jaw surgery. PG Kyteas, WS McKenzie, PD Waite, CH Kau.
Date: January 2017 Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 1, PP 174–185. Highlights: • A woman had progressive condylar hyperplasia from age 3 years. • Three-dimensional diagnosis and treatment plan were conducted. • A self-ligating lingual brace system were used. • Three-dimensional surgery was performed and splints placed to correct […]Read More
DENTAL TECHNIQUE: A 2-part facebow for CAD-CAM dentistry. YH Lam, TC Hsung, WS Choi, WK Luk, HN Pow.
Date: December 2016. Source: THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY. 116(6):843-847. Abstract: Converting the patient’s clinical information into the virtual world is a prerequisite for the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) of dental restorations. This article describes a modified facebow which facilitates the radiation-free registration of the maxillary teeth to a 3-dimensional face image for […]Read More
A comparison of soft tissue topographical norms for the local ethnic people of Zimbabwe and African American norms based on 3dMD soft tissue photography. E Bhaskar.
Date: December 2016. Source: Master of Science Thesis, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the soft tissue topographical norms for the local ethnic people of Zimbabwe and compare them with the African American norms based on 3dMD soft tissue photography. The rationale for the study is […]Read More
Novel Three-Dimensional Understanding of Maxillary Cleft Distraction. SM Vaughan, CH Kau, PD Waite.
Date: September 2016. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: Volume 27 – Issue 6 – p 1462–1464. Objective: To set forth a universal standard methodology for quantifying volumetric and linear changes in the craniofacial complex, utilizing three-dimensional data captured from a cleft-lip palate patient who underwent rigid external device (RED) distraction. Methods: Cone beam computed tomography […]Read More
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Facial Morphological Variation: A 3D Population-Based Twin Study. J Djordjevic, AI Zhurov, S Richmond, Visigen Consortium.
Date: September 2016 Source: PLoS One. 11(9):e0162250. Introduction: Facial phenotype is influenced by genes and environment; however, little is known about their relative contributions to normal facial morphology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation using a three-dimensional (3D) population-based approach and the classical […]Read More
Evaluation of the effects of the low-level laser therapy on swelling, pain, and trismus after removal of impacted lower third molar. H Alan, Ü Yolcu, M Koparal, C Özgür, SA Öztürk, D Malkoç.
Date: July 2016 Source: Head & Face Medicine Background: In current study we aimed to examine the effect of a low-level laser therapy on the pain, mouth opening and swelling of patients whose impacted 3rd molar tooth was extracted in addition measurement volumetrically to the edema with 3dMDface system. Methods: It was surveyed 15 patients […]Read More
3D Workflows in Orthodontics, Maxillofacial Surgery and Prosthodontics. Wicher J. van der Meer.
Date: 2016 Source: PhD Thesis Abstract: 3D workflows should result in clinical procedures that help clinicians to get better results with less effort and at lower costs. In other words, the 3D technology should make complex and difficult clinical procedures simpler and easier with reduced costs for healthcare. If 3D workflows are available with a […]Read More
3D Facial Effects of a Simulated Dental Build-up. BAMM Sterenborg, TJJ Maal, RD Vreeken, BAC Loomans, MCDNJM Huysmans.
Date: June 2016. Source: J Esthet Restor Dent 28:397–404. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 3D-stereophotogrammetry technique to detect differences in facial appearance after a simulated rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: Eleven volunteers without tooth wear participated. A 3D-stereophotograph was taken in five different situations: resting position, teeth in occlusion, and teeth […]Read More
Hypertelorism and Orofacial Clefting Revisited: An Anthropometric Investigation. SM Weinberg, EJ Leslie, JT Hecht, GL Wehby, FWB Deleyiannis, LM Moreno, K Christensen, ML Marazita.
Date: June 2016. ONLINE AHEAD OF PRINT Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging, we tested whether different forms […]Read More
Perception of Differences in Lip Profile between 2D and 3D. AM Hansen, SJ Lindauer, C Carrico.
Date: June 2016 Source: 92nd European Orthodontic Congress (EOS) 2016, Stockholm, Sweden Poster Objective: To determine how laypeople perceived esthetic differences in lip position (flat versus ideal lip fullness) in 2D versus 3D.Read More
Evaluation of Soft Tissue Nasal Changes Following Maxillary Surgery Using 3D Facial Images of Chinese Patients. E Wong, M Yow, MT Chew, K Foong, HC Wong.
Date: June 2016 Source: 92nd European Orthodontic Congress (EOS) 2016, Stockholm, Sweden Poster Objective: This study aims to evaluate nasal soft tissue changes following maxillary advancement surgery using images taken with a 3dMD camera of Chinese patients in the National Dental Centre Singapore (NDCS). A secondary objective is to determine if there is a correlation […]Read More
How do incisor inclination changes following orthodontic treatment influence the 3D configuration of the face? C Tanikawaw, K Takada, E Kakuno, R Kanomi.
Date: June 2016. Source: 92nd European Orthodontic Congress (EOS) 2016, Stockholm, Sweden. Poster Objective: To examine the relationships between the facial topographic changes and the changes in incisor inclinations after orthodontic treatment.Read More
An evaluation of effects of platelet-rich-fibrin on postoperative morbidities after lower third molar surgery. F Asutay, Ü Yolcu, O Geçör, AH Acar, SA Öztürk, S Malkoç.
Date: May 2016. Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) decreased the pain, swelling, and trismus levels of postoperative third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: In a double-blinded, split-mouth randomized study, thirty patients (6 male/24 female, mean age 20.32 […]Read More
Reproducibility of the lip position at rest: A 3-dimensional perspective. Furkan Dindaroğlu, Gökhan Serhat Duran, Serkan Görgülü.
Date: May 2016. Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 149, Issue 5, Pages 757–765. Highlights: • We assessed the reproducibility of the rest position using 3D soft tissue images. • 3D stereophotogrammetry images of a participant were acquired using 3dMD flex. • The reproducibility was assessed on the same day and 6 […]Read More
Perception of Differences in Lip Profile between 2-D and 3-D. Andrew M Hansen D.D.S.
Date: April 2016. Source: Theses and Dissertations. Virginia Commonwealth University. Background: Past studies evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic treatment have been done using 2-D images. New 3-D imaging offers an improved, real-life representation of a subject. The purpose of this study was to determine how laypeople perceived differences in lip position (flat versus ideal lip […]Read More
Evaluation of Soft Tissue Profile Change Following Bi-maxillary Surgery in Dento-skeletal Class III by Photogrammetric Analysis. A Torroni, G Gasparini, A Moro, G Saponaro, E Foresta, P De Angelis, D Cervelli, C Azzuni, R Boniello, L Pallottini, A Borelli, G Jafari, S Pelo, R Deli, and G Longo.
Date: April 2016 Source: British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research 15(2): 1-11, Article no. BJMMR.25350. Abstract: 3D analysis allows for simulation of orthognathic surgery and prediction of aesthetic and functional outcomes. Our study aims to find common and repeatable parameters on the behaviour of soft tissues following bone movement by pre- and post-treatment by […]Read More