Comprehensive treatment approach for condylar hyperplasia and mandibular crowding with custom lingual braces and 2-jaw surgery. PG Kyteas, WS McKenzie, PD Waite, CH Kau.
Date: January 2017 Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 1, PP 174–185. Highlights: • A woman had progressive condylar hyperplasia from age 3 years. • Three-dimensional diagnosis and treatment plan were conducted. • A self-ligating lingual brace system were used. • Three-dimensional surgery was performed and splints placed to correct […]Read More
DENTAL TECHNIQUE: A 2-part facebow for CAD-CAM dentistry. YH Lam, TC Hsung, WS Choi, WK Luk, HN Pow.
Date: December 2016. Source: THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY. 116(6):843-847. Abstract: Converting the patient’s clinical information into the virtual world is a prerequisite for the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) of dental restorations. This article describes a modified facebow which facilitates the radiation-free registration of the maxillary teeth to a 3-dimensional face image for […]Read More
Three Basic Steps for Applying Digital Images to Oral and Facial Surgery. M ZAWARTKA, J WANG, B ZHENG
Date: December 2016. Source: The Chinese Journal of Dental Research, Volume 19, Number 4, pp185-189. Abstract: In this paper, the authors discuss three basic steps related to the application of digital technology to reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), in an effort to improve surgical outcomes. These steps include acquiring digital images, processing images in […]Read More
Orofacial rehabilitation with zygomatic implants: CAD-CAM bar and magnets for patients with nasal cancer after rhinectomy and partial maxillectomy. E King, C Abbott, L Dovgalski, J Owens.
Date: November 2016. Source: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Abstract: Nasal carcinoma extending into the premaxilla requires radical surgical excision including rhinectomy and partial maxillectomy. Rehabilitation is complex and involves the use of removable prostheses. Three patients treated with zygomatic implants and custom-milled bars to retain an obturator and nasal prosthesis are presented. Article: Orofacial […]Read More
Evaluation of therapeutic effect of virtual design for correcting facial asymmetry of skeletal Class Ⅲ deformity. Tian KY, Li QQ, Liu XJ, Wang XX, Li ZL, Wang X.
Date: October 2016 Source: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi (Chinese Journal of Stomatology) 51(10):594-599. Objective: To establish a computer-aided surgical simulation procedure based on the natural head position(NHP) for orthognathic surgery and to access the effect for correcting facial asymmetry for skeletal Class Ⅲ deformity. Methods: Thirty-five patients(male: 14 and female: 21, mean […]Read More
Orbital Reconstruction: Patient-Specific Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using a Mirroring Technique and a Customized Titanium Mesh. A Tarsitano, G Badiali, A Pizzigallo, C Marchetti.
Date: October 2016. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Volume 27, Issue 7, p 1822–1825. Objective: Enophthalmos is a severe complication of primary reconstruction of orbital floor fractures. The goal of secondary reconstruction procedures is to restore symmetrical globe positions to recover function and aesthetics. The authors propose a new method of orbital floor reconstruction using […]Read More
Three-dimensional evaluation of the alar cinch suture after Le Fort I osteotomy. B van Loon, L Verhamme, T Xi, MJJ de Koning, SJ Bergé, TJJ Maal.
Date: October 2016. Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 45, Issue 10, Pages 1309–1314. Abstract: Orthognathic surgery has an influence on the overlying soft tissues of the translated bony maxillomandibular complex. Improvements in both function and facial appearance are the goals of surgery. However, unwanted changes to the soft tissues, especially in […]Read More
Measuring Symmetry in Children With Cleft Lip. Part 3: Quantifying Nasal Symmetry and Nasal Normalcy Before and After Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair. S Liang, L Shapiro, R Tse.
Date: October 2016 (Online). Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop objective computer-based methods to measure nasal asymmetry and abnormality in children undergoing treatment of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and to determine the correlation of these measures to clinical expectations. Participants: Thirty infants with UCL undergoing cleft lip […]Read More
Quantification of facial asymmetry: A comparative study of landmark-based and surface-based registrations. T Verhoeven, T Xic, R Schreurs, S Bergé, TJJ Maal.
Date: September 2016. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Volume 44, Issue 9, Pages 1131–1136. Objective: To compare the validity and reproducibility of four different methods for the quantification of soft tissue facial asymmetry. Methods: Twenty 3D-photographs were randomly selected from the healthy control database. To assess the validity of the one landmark-based and three surface-based […]Read More
Evaluation of the effects of the low-level laser therapy on swelling, pain, and trismus after removal of impacted lower third molar. H Alan, Ü Yolcu, M Koparal, C Özgür, SA Öztürk, D Malkoç.
Date: July 2016 Source: Head & Face Medicine Background: In current study we aimed to examine the effect of a low-level laser therapy on the pain, mouth opening and swelling of patients whose impacted 3rd molar tooth was extracted in addition measurement volumetrically to the edema with 3dMDface system. Methods: It was surveyed 15 patients […]Read More
3D Workflows in Orthodontics, Maxillofacial Surgery and Prosthodontics. Wicher J. van der Meer.
Date: 2016 Source: PhD Thesis Abstract: 3D workflows should result in clinical procedures that help clinicians to get better results with less effort and at lower costs. In other words, the 3D technology should make complex and difficult clinical procedures simpler and easier with reduced costs for healthcare. If 3D workflows are available with a […]Read More
Multimodal Image Registration for Mandible Motion Tracking. AA Tomaka, M Tarnawski, D Pojda.
Date: May 2016 Source: Information Technologies in Medicine, Volume 471 of the series Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing pp 179-191. Abstract: The analysis of the condyle position in temporomandibular joint is crucial issue in differential diagnosis of bruxism and centric relation/maximal intercuspidation discrepancy or other temporomandibular joint disorders. The matter of importance are both […]Read More
An evaluation of effects of platelet-rich-fibrin on postoperative morbidities after lower third molar surgery. F Asutay, Ü Yolcu, O Geçör, AH Acar, SA Öztürk, S Malkoç.
Date: May 2016. Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) decreased the pain, swelling, and trismus levels of postoperative third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: In a double-blinded, split-mouth randomized study, thirty patients (6 male/24 female, mean age 20.32 […]Read More
Reproducibility of the lip position at rest: A 3-dimensional perspective. Furkan Dindaroğlu, Gökhan Serhat Duran, Serkan Görgülü.
Date: May 2016. Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 149, Issue 5, Pages 757–765. Highlights: • We assessed the reproducibility of the rest position using 3D soft tissue images. • 3D stereophotogrammetry images of a participant were acquired using 3dMD flex. • The reproducibility was assessed on the same day and 6 […]Read More
Evaluation of Soft Tissue Profile Change Following Bi-maxillary Surgery in Dento-skeletal Class III by Photogrammetric Analysis. A Torroni, G Gasparini, A Moro, G Saponaro, E Foresta, P De Angelis, D Cervelli, C Azzuni, R Boniello, L Pallottini, A Borelli, G Jafari, S Pelo, R Deli, and G Longo.
Date: April 2016 Source: British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research 15(2): 1-11, Article no. BJMMR.25350. Abstract: 3D analysis allows for simulation of orthognathic surgery and prediction of aesthetic and functional outcomes. Our study aims to find common and repeatable parameters on the behaviour of soft tissues following bone movement by pre- and post-treatment by […]Read More
Validation of the Alberta Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (APOSA) Index for Orthodontic Treatment Need in Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms.
Date: April 2016. Source: PhD Thesis. Medical Sciences, Orthodontics, University of Alberta. Objective: To determine the predictive ability of the Alberta Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (APOSA) Index for orthodontic treatment need in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms. Methods: Thirty orthodontic records, representing a spectrum of craniofacial and oral features and severity, were evaluated […]Read More
Infantile hemangioma status by dynamic infrared thermography: A preliminary study. SA Burkes, M Patel, DM Adams, AM Hammill, KP Eaton, RR Wickett, MO Visscher.
Date: April 2016. Source: International Journal of Dermatology. Background: Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are initially warm due to increased proliferation and perfusion then involute with apoptosis and reduced perfusion. Objective quantitative evaluation of IH treatment response is essential for improving outcomes. We applied a functional imaging method, dynamic infrared (IR) thermography, to investigate IH status versus […]Read More
Measuring Symmetry in Children With Unrepaired Cleft Lip: Defining a Standard for the Three-Dimensional Mid-facial Reference Plane. J Wu, C Heike, C Birgfeld, K Evans, M Maga, C Morrison, B Saltzman, L Shapiro, R Tse.
Date: March 2016 (Online ahead of print) Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Quantitative measures of facial form to evaluate treatment outcomes for cleft lip (CL) are currently limited. Computer-based analysis of three-dimensional (3D) images provides an opportunity for efficient and objective analysis. The purpose of this study was to define a computer-based standard of […]Read More
The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis. YSN Jayaratne, RA Zwahlen.
Date: February 2016. Source: PLOS | One. Objective: 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class […]Read More
Facial soft-tissue changes after rapid maxillary expansion analyzed with 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetry: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. A Baysal, MA Ozturk, AO Sahan, T Uysal.
Date: February 2016 (ONLINE AHEAD OF PRINT). Source: Angle Orthodontist Objective: To evaluate three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue facial changes following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and to compare these changes with an untreated control group. Materials and Methods: Patients who need RME as a part of their orthodontic treatment were randomly divided into two groups of […]Read More
Reproducibility and reliability of three-dimensional soft tissue landmark identification using three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry. A Baysal, AO Sahan, MA Ozturk, T Uysal.
Date: February 2016 (ONLINE AHEAD OF PRINT). Source: Angle Orthodontist Objective: To evaluate the intraexaminer repeatability and interexaminer reproducibility of soft tissue landmarks on three-dimensional (3D) stereophogrammetric images. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four stereophotogrammetric images were taken and 19 soft tissue points were identified. The images were obtained using the 3dMDface (3dMD, Atlanta, USA) system. Two […]Read More
Facial morphology in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and moderate to severe temporomandibular joint involvement. YJ Hsieh, TA Darvann, NV Hermann, P Larsen, YF Liao, J Bjoern-Joergensen, S Kreiborg.
Date: February 2016 Source: American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics. Volume 149, Issue 2, Pages 182–191. Highlights: • We evaluated lateral facial morphology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with moderate and severe TMJ involvement. • Differences in their lateral facial morphologies between unilateral and bilateral TMJ involvement were also assessed. Introduction: The aims of […]Read More
Does powdering of the dentition increase the accuracy of fusing 3D stereophotographs and digital dental casts. FA Rangel, YT Chiu, TJJ Maal, EM Bronkhorst, SJ Bergé, AM Kuijpers-Jagtman.
Date: January 2016 (Online) Source: The European Journal of Orthodontics. Objective: The shiny vestibular surfaces of teeth make it difficult to match digital dental casts to 3D stereophotogrammetric images of patient teeth. This study tested whether reducing this shininess by coating the teeth with titanium-oxide powder might improve the accuracy of the matching procedure. Methods: […]Read More
A Pilot Study on the Influence of Facial Expression on Measurements in Three-Dimensional Digital Surfaces of the Face in Infants With Cleft Lip and Palate. NV Hermann, TA Darvann, P Larsen, P Lindholm, M Andersen, S Kreiborg.
Date: January 2016. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional surface imaging is an increasingly popular modality for face measurements in infants with cleft lip and palate. Infants are noncompliant toward producing specific facial expressions, and selecting the appropriate moment of acquisition is challenging. The objective was to estimate amount and spatial distribution of deformation […]Read More
Evaluation of Nasal Soft Tissue Changes in a Newborn with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Before and After Nasoalveolar Molding Using a Three-Dimensional System. F Ozturk, E Cakir, SA Ozturk, E Hatunoglu.
Date: September 2015. Source: 8th International Orthodontic Congress 2015, London. Introduction: The pre-surgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) treatment protocol for cleft patients has been described by Grayson et al. (1993), Brecht et al. (1995), and Cutting et al. (1998). Pre-surgical nasal molding produces tissue expansion of the columella and nasal lining. The purpose of this case […]Read More
Evaluating 3-Dimensional Soft Tissue Changes in Class III Chinese Patients after Orthognathic Surgery. JX Su, M Yow, MT Chew, HC Wong.
Date: September 2015. Source: 8th International Orthodontic Congress 2015, London. Aim: To evaluate facial soft tissue changes in Class III skeletal Chinese patients who have undergone orthognathic surgery. Objective. To determine if there is a correlation between hard and soft tissue movement after orthognathic surgery. Study Design: This is a retrospective study involving 15 Chinese […]Read More
Facial Scanning With a Digital Camera: A Novel Way of Screening for Primary Angle Closure. HKY Choi, W Lin, SC Loon, C Tan, W Wong, J See, Z Gu, CK Kwoh, P Chew.
Date: September 2015 Source: Journal of Glaucoma, Volume 24 – Issue 7 – p 522–526. Purpose: We hypothesize that patients with primary angle closure (PAC) have common significant facial characteristics that set them apart from an age-matched, sex-matched, and race-matched control population. The primary objective of this study was to test whether a 3-dimensional (3D) […]Read More
Craniofacial Image Analysis. E Mercan, I Atmosukarto, J Wu, S Liang, LG Shapiro.
Date: July 2015. Source: Health Monitoring and Personalized Feedback using Multimedia Data. Springer. Abstract: Craniofacial researchers have used anthropometric measurements taken directly on the human face for research and medical practice for decades. With the advancements in 3D imaging technologies, computational methods have been developed for the diagnoses of craniofacial syndromes and the analysis of […]Read More
Reducing cone beam CT scan height as a method of radiation reduction for photorealistic three-dimensional orthognathic planning. C Lin, TC Hsung, B Khambay.
Date: July 2015. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 43(6):907-12. Objectives: To determine the superimposition accuracy of full-face stereophotographic images with 22 cm and 13 cm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Material and methods: 22 cm CBCT scans and corresponding stereophotographic images (3dMD) for 30 subjects requiring orthognathic surgery were randomly selected. A 13 cm […]Read More
Comparison of the Facial Morphologies of Identical Twins Using Three-Dimensional Photography: A Case Report. Sedat Altindis, Erdem Hatunoglu, Emine Toptan.
Date: July 2015 Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal. Abstract: The facial morphologies of identical twins were compared using the 3dMD three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry system. 3D images of the faces of 27-year-old identical twins were acquired and then superimposed. The differences were shown in a color histogram generated using 3dMD Vultus software. The faces […]Read More
Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair Using the Anatomical Subunit Approximation: Modifications and Analysis of Early Results in 100 Consecutive Cases. R Tse, S Lien.
Date: July 2015. Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 136(1):119-30. Abstract: The “Anatomic Subunit Approximation” for unilateral cleft lip repair has gained acceptance, however, outcomes have not been reported since the original description. The purpose of this study is to report the experience using this technique. Methods: One hundred two consecutive patients underwent primary cleft lip […]Read More
Recording and Transferring Head Positions to the Virtual Head Using a Multicamera System and Laser Level. KY Tian, ZL Xue, XJ Liu, X Wang, Z Li.
Date: June 2015. Source: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: To fulfill the requirements of computer-aided orthognathic surgery, we developed a method of recording head positions in pitch and roll, and tested its accuracy and reliability. Materials and Methods: A laser level was used to project a horizontal laser line onto a volunteer’s face. […]Read More
The Use of 3D Imaging in Craniosynostosis; Surgical Planning; and Follow-Up. T Maal.
Date: June 24, 2015. Source: European Craniofacial Congress 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden. Presentation: The Use of 3D Imaging in Craniosynostosis; Surgical Planning; and Follow-Up. Presenter: Thomas J Maal, 3D Lab, Department of Oral- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.Read More
Methods for Extraction and Analysis of Shape and Asymmetry from Craniofacial 3D Images. TA Darvann.
Date: June 24, 2015. Source: European Craniofacial Congress 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden. Summary: Being able to compare images is one of the core technologies of medical image analysis. In order to quantify change, e.g. due to growth or surgery, it is necessary to compare two or more images. And as part of population studies it is […]Read More
3D digital surface imaging for quantification of facial development and asymmetry in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. NV Hermann, TA Darvann, P Larsen, S Kreiborg.
Date: June 2015. Source: Seminars in Orthodontics, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 121–124. Abstract: 3D digital surface imaging (digital stereophotogrammetry or “3D photography”) is becoming an increasingly popular tool for quantification of the face, in clinical contexts as well as for research. The modality is easy to apply and is free from motion artifacts and […]Read More
A Solution to Face-to-Face Contact in Tele-Presence Systems. X Zhou, P Boulanger.
Date: June 2015 Source: 2015 12th Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV) Proceedings (p 230 – 236), Halifax, Canada. Abstract: In tele-presence systems, direct face-to-face contact, is essential for emotional communication as it carries non-verbal clues. In commercial products, face-to-face contact is approximated by using either a large semi-transparent mirror to project an image […]Read More
Cephalometric analysis and long-term outcomes of orthognathic surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea. ED Ubaldo, GM Greenlee, J Moore, E Sommers, and AM Bollen.
Date: June 2015. Source: The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 44(6):752-9. Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe skeletal and posterior airway changes after orthodontic treatment and surgical jaw advancement, and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between increasing advancement and a long-term reduction in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Lateral […]Read More
Thesis: Investigating the Accuracy and Reproducibility of 3dMDface System for Soft Tissue Analysis. YM Kachroo.
Date: June 2015. Source: Theses. ProQuest, Publication No. 1590412. University of California, Los Angeles. Advisers: Yeumin Hong; Won Moon. Objective: Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue (ST) changes from orthodontic treatment can now be evaluated with the development of 3D photography. However, the accuracy and reliability of this method is still in question. This study aims to […]Read More
Precision of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD) in anthropometry of the auricle and its application in microtia reconstruction. ZC Chen, MN Albdour, JA Lizardo, YA Chen, KT Chen.
Date: May 2015. Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 68, Issue 5, Pages 622–631. Background: The advent of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry in recent years has vastly helped the craniomaxillofacial field improve in terms of preoperative and intraoperative decision making. With regard to the auricle though, there is paucity of research as to the […]Read More
Validation of a new method to measure facial soft tissue movements. CA Trotman, T Lu, V Sirianna.
Date: May 2015. Source: International Association for Dental Research, Boston, USA. Poster: #4342. Authors: CA Trotman, T Lu, V Sirianna. School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.Read More
The virtual patient in dental medicine. T Joda, GO Gallucci.
Date: April 2015. Source: Clinical Oral Implants Research, 26, pp 725–726. Objectives: The aim of this Short Communication was to present a workflow for the superimposition of intraoral scan (IOS), cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and extraoral face scan (EOS) creating a 3D virtual dental patient. Material and Methods: As a proof-of-principle, full arch IOS, preoperative […]Read More
Comparison of three surgical techniques for controlling nasal width after Le Fort I osteotomy. ZQ Wang, XX Wang, ZL Li, B Yi, C Liang, X Wang.
Date: March 2015. Source: Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao (Journal of Peking University, Health Sciences), 47(1):104-108. OBJECTIVE: To identify nasal width changes occurring after Le Fort I osteotomy and to compare prospectively the effect of three surgical techniques for controlling postoperative nasal width. METHODS: In the study, 79 patients (22 male and 57 female, mean […]Read More
Monobloc Le Fort III Distraction Osteogenesis for Correction of Severe Fronto-orbital and Midface Hypoplasia in Pediatric Crouzon Syndrome. F Hariri, LK Cheung, ZA Rahman, V Mathaneswaran, D Ganesan.
Date: February 2015. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Abstract: In severe syndromic craniosynostosis, distraction osteogenesis (DO) provides superior segmental advancement and allows progressive clinical monitoring to ensure that adequate skeletal expansion is achieved. We report two cases of Crouzon syndrome involving a 3-year-old boy and a 4-year-old girl, who were both treated with monobloc Le […]Read More
Three-dimensional changes in nose and upper lip volume after orthognathic surgery. B van Loon, N van Heerbeek, F Bierenbroodspot, L Verhamme, T Xi, MJJ de Koning, KJAO Ingels, SJ Bergé, TJJ Maal.
Date: January 2015 Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 44(1):83-9. Abstract: Orthognathic surgery aims to improve both the function and facial appearance of the patient. Translation of the maxillomandibular complex for correction of malocclusion is always followed by changes to the covering soft tissues, especially the nose and lips. The purpose of this study […]Read More
Reliability and validity of measurements of facial swelling with a stereophotogrammetry optical three-dimensional scanner. WJ van der Meer, PU Dijkstra, A Visser, A Vissink, Y Ren.
Date: December 2014 Source: British Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 52(10):922-7. Abstract: Volume changes in facial morphology can be assessed using the 3dMDface® stereo-optical 3-dimensional scanner, which uses visible light and has a short scanning time. Its reliability and validity have not to our knowledge been investigated for the assessment of facial swelling. Our aim […]Read More
Nasal changes after orthognathic surgery for patients with prognathism and Class III malocclusion: Analysis using three-dimensional photogrammetry. S Worasakwutiphong; YF Chuang; HW Chang; HH Lin; PJ Lin; LJ Lo.
Date: December 2014. Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. Background/Purpose. Orthognathic surgery alters the position of maxilla and mandible, and consequently changes the nasal shape. The nasal change remains a concern to Asian patients. The aim of this study was to measure the nasal changes using a novel three-dimensional photographic imaging method. Methods. A […]Read More
Digital capture, design & manufacturing of an extra-oral device for a clarinet player suffering from Bell’s palsy. C Aita-Holmes, GT Grant, P Liacouras, WO Wilson Jr.
Date: November 2014. Source: 61st Meeting of the American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics in New Orleans, USA. Poster Presentation: Digital capture, design & manufacturing of an extra-oral device for a clarinet player suffering from Bell’s palsy. Authors: Cynthia Aita-Holmes, DMD; Gerald T. Grant, DMD, MS; Peter Liacouras, PhD; William O. Wilson, Jr., DDS, MSRead More