Challenges with Life Surface Imaging. L Zou, R Richard, J Blythe, N Donos.

Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Lifong ZOU Session: Technical Session 3: 3D Face & Body Scanning in Medicine Abstract: Stereo photogrammetry has a clear role in clinical research, treatment planning and effectiveness assessment within the domain of medicine and dentistry. Recently more computational automatic […]

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Both the Observer’s Expertise and the Subject’s Facial Symmetry Can Affect Anatomical Position of the Head. PH Sutton, J Gateno, JD English, J Paranilam, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.

Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: It is easier for us to judge facial deformity when the patient’s head is in anatomic position. The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) if a group of expert observers agree more than a group of non-experts on what is the correct […]

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Regression of cephalic index following endoscopic repair of sagittal synostosis. NA Pickersgill, GB Skolnick, SD Naidoo, MD Smyth, KB Patel.

Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics [Online Before Print]. Objective: Metrics used to quantify preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes for patients with sagittal synostosis include cephalic index (CI), the well-known standard, and the recently described adjusted cephalic index (aCI), which accounts for altered euryon location. This study tracks the time course of these […]

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Reconstruction of the oral commissure in patients with unilateral transverse facial cleft. M Tuersunjiang, X Long, Y Fu, J Ke, H He, J Li.

Date: September 2018. Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 621-625. Abstract: The normal commissure is not a simple joint of the upper and lower lip, but a triangular mucosal area. To reconstruct a symmetrical oral commissure in patients with a unilateral transverse facial cleft, we designed composite vermilion […]

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A scale space approach for exploring structure in spherical data. V Vuollo, L Holmström.

Date: September 2018. Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 125, pp 57-69. Highlights: • A novel scale space technique for analyzing spherical data is proposed. • Distributions of normal vector directions computed from a 3dMDhead image are analyzed. • A movie is a convenient way to explore the maps included in a SphereSiZer atlas. […]

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Assessing calvarial vault constriction associated with helmet therapy in deformational plagiocephaly. EC Peterson, KB Patel, GB Skolnick, KD Pfeifauf, KN Davidson, MD Smyth, SD Naidoo.

Date: Aug 2018. Source: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. Volume 22: Issue 2: pp 113-221. Objective: Deformational plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (DPB) is a cranial flattening frequently treated in pediatric craniofacial centers. The standard of care for DPB involves patient positioning or helmet therapy. Orthotic therapy successfully reduces cranial asymmetry, but there is concern over whether the […]

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Precision Rhinoplasty Using Virtual Surgical Planning and Departmentally-Manufactured, 3D-Printed, Sterilizable, Patient-Specific Anatomic Models. SG Maliha, JM Bekisz, HA Liss, L Witek, PG Coelho, RL Flores.

Date: August 2018. Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Volume 6, Issue 8S, pp 87–88. Goals and Purpose: Rhinoplasty relies on clear patient communication and precise execution of a three-dimensional (3D) plan to achieve optimal results.1 3D printing is becoming more popularized in the medical field as an aid to technical planning, patient communication, and the […]

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Three‑Dimensional Evaluation of the Effect of Low‑Level Laser Therapy on Facial Swelling after Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. F Asutay, A Ozcan-Kucuk, H Alan, M Koparal.

Date: August 2018. Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Purpose: : This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a low‑level laser therapy (LLLT) on pain, trismus, and swelling of patients whose impacted 3rd molar tooth was extracted compared to placebo or “sham” treatment and measure volumetrically the edema with a three‑dimensional (3D) surface imaging […]

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Thesis. Craniofacial morphology and the use of neonatal non-invasive ventilation therapy. Don He.

Date: August 2018. Source: Thesis. University of British Columbia Library. Craniofacial Science, Dentistry, Faculty of University of British Columbia. Objective: A prospective cohort study with the overall objective to characterize the three-dimensional facial morphology of preterm infants over the course of the first 18 months of corrected age, participating in the Neonatal Follow-up Program of […]

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Hemimandibular Hyperplasia Correction by Simultaneous Orthognathic Surgery and Condylectomy Under Digital Guidance. Bi Han, X Wang, Z Li et al.

Date: July 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 1563.e1-1563.e18. Objective: Orthognathic surgery with simultaneous condylectomy under digital guidance has been proved to be a feasible method to treat hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and precision of correction of HH by […]

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Influence of involuntary facial expressions on reproducibility of 3D stereophotogrammetry in children with and without complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 to 18 months of age. Brons, S; Darroudi, A; Nada, R et al.

Date: June 2018. Source: Clinical Oral Investigations. Objective: To assess the influence of involuntary facial expressions on 3D facial stereophotogrammetry reproducibility in children with and without unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) aged 3–18 months. Methods: Three to eight 3D facial images per time point were acquired within 10 min of 31 children with […]

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Three‐dimensional facial phenotyping in obstructive sleep apnoea. RWW Lee.

Date: June 2018 Source: Respirology, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 560-561. Abstract: Craniofacial structure is an important anatomical determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). While obesity is the major attributing risk factor for OSA, it is well established that a restricted craniofacial bony skeleton also contributes to a more collapsible upper airway, which is a […]

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Assessment of regional asymmetry of the face before and after surgical correction of unilateral cleft lip. D Al-Rudainy, FV Mehendale et al.

Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 974-978. Abstract: This study was carried out on 26 unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) cases with mean age 3.6 ± 0.7 months. 3D facial images were captured for each infant 2–3 days before the repair of cleft lip and at 4 […]

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Craniomaxillofacial Reconstruction Based on 3D Modeling. GT Grant.

Date: June 2018. Source: Digital Technologies in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, pp 55-65. Abstract: Current treatment planning and reconstruction of craniofacial trauma has been advanced greatly due to the increase in the use of software to convert medical image files in the form of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to 3D reconstructions and ultimately files […]

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Female Facial Attractiveness Assessed from Three-Dimensional Contour Lines by University Students. J Jirathamopas, YF Liao, EWC Ko, YR Chen, CS Huang.

Date: May 2018. Source: Dentistry Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, 16. Background: Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines should […]

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Comparison of an unsupervised machine learning algorithm and surgeon diagnosis in the clinical differentiation of metopic craniosynostosis and benign metopic ridge. MJ Cho, RR Hallac, M Effendi, JR Seaward, AA Kane.

Date: April 2018. Source: Scientific Reports, Volume 8, Article number: 6312. Abstract: Metopic suture closure can manifest as a benign metopic ridge (BMR), a variant of normal, to “true” metopic craniosynostosis (MCS), which is associated with severe trigonocephaly. Currently, there is no gold standard for how much associated orbitofrontal dysmorphology should trigger surgical intervention. In […]

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Patient-specific 3D Models Providing a 21st Century Approach to Reconstructive Surgery. H Liss, SG Maliha, L Witek et al.

Date: April 2018. Source: Society For Biomaterials 2018 Annual Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, USA. Statement of Purpose: Through the implementation of 3D- printed models in the operating room, plastic surgeons are able to visualize and reconstruct key anatomical features for patients seeking an autogenous ear reconstruction or rhinoplasty. The 3D-printed constructs are sterilizable patient-specific, […]

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Three-dimensional photography for the evaluation of facial profiles in obstructive sleep apnoea. SW Lin, K Sutherland, YF Liao, PA Cistulli, LP Chuang, YT Chou, CH Chang, CS Lee, LF Li, NH Chen.

Date: February 2018. Source: Respirology, 10.1111/resp.13261. Background and Objective: Craniofacial structure is an important determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome risk. Three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD) is a novel technique which allows quantification of the craniofacial profile. This study compares the facial images of OSA patients captured by 3dMD to three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) and […]

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Facial morphology and growth following surgery for congenital midline cervical cleft patients. Y Fan, H Matthews, N Kilpatrick, P Claes, J Clement, A Penington.

Date: January 2018 (Online). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare condition that consists of a cutaneous midline neck lesion with a sinus extending inferiorly towards the sternum. A fibrous band that extends superiorly to the mandible is a consistent feature of the condition. Restriction […]

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3D Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Patients With Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. I Bagante, I Zepa, I Akota.

Date: December 2017. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Rhinoplasty in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) is challenging, and the surgical outcome of the nose is complicated to evaluate. The aim of this study was to assess the nasolabial appearance of patients with UCLP compared with a control group. Design: Cross-sectional […]

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3D Modelling of Facial Skin Surface for 3D Printing. Emma Ekberg.

Date: December 2017. Source: Master’s Thesis 2017:EX056, CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. Abstract:One of the major global health problems today is burns, with an estimate of 256000 deaths each year caused by fires [1]. For more severe burns the probability of infections increases and here the golden standard is to use autologous skin grafts. However, the […]

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Modelling of Orthogonal Craniofacial Profiles. H Dai, N Pears, C Duncan.

Date: November 2017. Source: Journal of Imaging 2017, 3(4), 55; doi:10.3390/jimaging3040055. Abstract: We present a fully-automatic image processing pipeline to build a set of 2D morphable models of three craniofacial profiles from orthogonal viewpoints, side view, front view and top view, using a set of 3D head surface images. Subjects in this dataset wear a […]

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Depth accuracy of the RealSense F200: Low-cost 4D facial imaging. TC ten Harkel, CM Speksnijder, F van der Heijden, CHG Beurskens, KJAO Ingels, TJJ Maal.

Date: November 2017 Source: nature.com / Scientific Reports Abstract: The RealSense F200 represents a new generation of economically viable 4-dimensional imaging (4D) systems for home use. However, its 3D geometric (depth) accuracy has not been clinically tested. Therefore, this study determined the depth accuracy of the RealSense, in a cohort of patients with a unilateral […]

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The influence of dexamethasone on postoperative swelling and neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial. W Semper-Hogg, MA Fuessinger, TW Dirlewanger, CP Cornelius, MC Metzger.

Date: November 2017. Source: Head & Face Medicine 2017 13:19. Background: Orthognathic surgery is associated with considerable swelling and neurosensory disturbances. Serious swelling can lead to great physical and psychological strain. A randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was realized in order to evaluate the effect of a preoperative intravenous dexamethasone injection of 40 mg on […]

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Treatment of Craniosynostoses. N Salokorpi.

Date: November 2017. Source: Academic dissertation, Health and Biosciences, University of Oulu. Abstract: This work evaluated the safety and effectiveness of operative techniques used in cranioplastic surgery and outcomes of these surgical methods. In study I the feasibility of endocranial fixation in frontal remodeling surgery for metopic and coronal synostosis was established. Good to excellent […]

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An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation. X Zhang, D Kim, S Shen, et al.

Date: October 2017. Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, pp 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10237-017-0967-6. Abstract: Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical […]

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A clinical technique for virtual articulator mounting with natural head position by using calibrated stereophotogrammetry. WYH Lam, RTC Hsung, WWS Choi, et al.

Date: September 2017. Source: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (Online). Abstract: Accurate articulator-mounted casts are essential for occlusion analysis and for fabrication of dental prostheses. Although the axis orbital plane has been commonly used as the reference horizontal plane, some clinicians prefer to register the horizontal plane with a spirit level when the patient is […]

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A Three-Dimensional Study of Midfacial Changes Following Le Fort II Distraction With Zygomatic Repositioning in Syndromic Patients. JM Smartt, C Campbell, R Hallac, J Alford, CA Derderian.

Date: September 2017. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003869. Abstract: Le Fort II distraction with zygomatic repositioning introduced the ability to restore central midfacial height and convexity independent of changes in orbital morphology. This study analyzes midfacial and orbital morphology before and after Le Fort II distraction with zygomatic repositioning. All patients who underwent […]

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Does shape affect function? Articulatory skills in babbling of infants with deformational plagiocephaly. C Linz, T Schweitzer, LC Brenner, F Kunz, P Meyer-Marcotty, K Wermke.

Date: September 2017. Source: Child’s Nervous System, pp 1–8. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyse pre-speech/early language skills in healthy full-term infants with moderate or severe deformational plagiocephaly (DP) and in infants without any skull asymmetry. Methods: At 6 and 12 months, 51 children with DP (41 moderate, 10 severe cases) […]

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Evaluation of Head Position in Static and Dynamic Three-Dimensional Imaging: a review of the Literature. M Kjærgaard Larsen, TH Thygesen.

Date: August 2017. Source: International Journal of Oral and Craniofacial Science, 3(2), pp 34-38. Background: : The interest in three-dimensional imaging in orthognathic treatment planning has been growing, especially for evaluation of the natural head position. Several three-dimensional devices are available on the market. Three-dimensional evaluation of the patient will probably soon be a standard […]

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Validation of a new three-dimensional imaging system using comparative craniofacial anthropometry. FB Naini, S Akram, J Kepinska, U Garagiola, F McDonald, D Wertheim.

Date: August 2017. Source: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (2017) 39: 23. Background: The aim of this study is to validate a new three-dimensional craniofacial stereophotogrammetry imaging system (3dMDface) through comparison with manual facial surface anthropometry. The null hypothesis was that there is no difference between craniofacial measurements using anthropometry vs. the 3dMDface system. Methods: […]

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Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients: Do the assessment methods measure the same outcome? DGM Mosmuller, TJ Maal, C Prahl, RA Tan, FJ Mulder, RMF Schwirtz, HCW de Vet, SJ Bergé, JPW Don Griot.

Date: August 2017. Source: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 45(8):1220-1226. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2017.04.004. Objective: For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. Methods: The data and ratings from an […]

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The role of Nasoalveolar molding: A 3D Prospective analysis. PY Chou, RR Hallac, T Ajiwe, XJ Xie, YF Liao, AA Kane, YJong Park.

Date: August 2017. Source: nature.com SCiENtifiC REporTS | 7: 9901. Abstract: Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) is commonly employed to reduce the alveolar segments into proper alignment and to improve nasal symmetry in patients with cleft lip and palate. This study examines the periodical progression of NAM treatment over time. 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip […]

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THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVALUATION OF CLASS III TREATMENT OF A 6 YEAR OLD BOY WITH THE FRÄNKEL FUNCTION REGULATOR III MODIFIED APPLIANCE. BK Đokić, A Zhurov, S Richmond, M Ovsenik.

Date: June 2017. Source: 93rd Congress of the European Orthodontic Society 2017. Montreux, Switzerland. Aim: To objectively demonstrate the changes of soft tissues after use of a Fränkel functional regulator III (FFR III) modified appliance (Farčnik, 2008) of a skeletal Class III malocclusion Subject and Methods: Clinical examination of the 6 year old boy revealed […]

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Association Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Craniofacial Shape of Children at 12 Months of Age. E Muggli, H Matthews, A Penington, et al.

Date: June 2017 (Online). Source: JAMA Pediatrics, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0778. Question: Is there an association between different levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and child craniofacial shape at 12 months? Findings: This cohort study conducted an objective and sensitive craniofacial phenotype analysis of 415 children, which showed an association between prenatal alcohol exposure and craniofacial shape at almost […]

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Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate. J Lee, B Ku, PD Combs et al.

Date: June 2017. Source: 3D Research (2017) 8:19. doi:10.1007/s13319-017-0128-9. Abstract: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group […]

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Accuracy of measurements used to quantify cranial asymmetry in deformational plagiocephaly. H Aarnivala, V Vuollo, T Heikkinen, V Harila, L Holmström, P Pirttiniemi, AM Valkama.

Date: May 2017 (ONLINE). Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Objective: Various measurements are used to quantify cranial asymmetry in deformational plagiocephaly (DP), but studies validating cut-off values and comparing the accuracy of such measurements are lacking. In this study, we compared the accuracy of four different measurements in classifying children with and without DP diagnosed […]

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The Effects of Objective 3D Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness. CD Hatch, GL Wehby, NL Nidey, LM Moreno Uribe.

Date: May 2017 Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. We evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. Patient and Methods: […]

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There is variability in our perception of the standard head orientation. GN Hughes, J Gateño, JD English, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.

Date: May 2017 (On-line). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: The purposes of this study were to determine: (1) whether an observer’s perception of the correct anatomical alignment of the head changes with time, and (2) whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment. To determine whether the perception of the […]

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Genome-wide association study of facial morphology reveals novel associations with FREM1 and PARK2. MK Lee, JR Shaffer JR, EJ Leslie, E Orlova, JC Carlson, E Feingold, ML Marazita, SM Weinberg.

Date: April 2017. Source: PLoS One. 12(4): e0176566. Abstract: Several studies have now shown evidence of association between common genetic variants and quantitative facial traits in humans. The reported associations generally involve simple univariate measures and likely represent only a small fraction of the genetic loci influencing facial morphology. In this study, we applied factor […]

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Large Scale 3D Morphable Models. J Booth, A Roussos, A Ponniah, D Dunaway, S Zafeiriou.

Date: April 2017. Source: International Journal of Computer Vision, pp 1–22. Abstract: We present large scale facial model (LSFM)—a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) automatically constructed from 9663 distinct facial identities. To the best of our knowledge LSFM is the largest-scale Morphable Model ever constructed, containing statistical information from a huge variety of the human population. […]

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Correlation between the incisors axis inclination and the exposure of the vermilion. E Candida, S Summa, I D’Apolito, C Strappa, R Deli.

Date: April 2017. Source: XXIV Congresso Nazionale Collegio dei Docenti Universitari di Discipline Odontostomatologiche, Milano, Italy. Objective: the enhancement of the lips through cosmetic techniques is a popular procedure. In literature there are not many studies which demonstrate all the aspects that influence this area which is so important for patients. Orthodontic biomechanics related to […]

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A new method for three-dimensional evaluation of the cranial shape and the automatic identification of craniosynostosis using 3D stereophotogrammetry. JW Meulstee1, LM Verhamme, WA Borstlap, F Van der Heijden, GA De Jong, T Xi, SJ Bergé, H Delye, TJJ Maal.

Date: April 2017 (Online). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect which can result in abnormal cranial morphology. Three dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry is potentially an ideal technique for the evaluation of cranial morphology and diagnosis of craniosynostosis because it is fast and harmless. This study presents a new […]

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Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients. DGM Mosmuller, TJJ Maal, C Prahl, RA Tan, FJ Mulder, RMF Schwirtz, HCW de Vet, SJ Bergé, JPW Don Griot.

Date: April 2017 (ONLINE) Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Objective: For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. Methods: The data and ratings from an earlier […]

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Analysis of Digital Documentation. KH Breuning, CH Kau.

Date: March 2017. Source: Digital Planning and Custom Orthodontic Treatment, First Edition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 4: Analysis of Digital Documentation. Authors: K. Hero Breuning and Chung H. Kau.

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Digital design of patient-specific abutments for the retention of implant-retained facial prostheses. C Kincade, L McHutchion, J Wolfaardt.

Date: March 2017. Source: Presented at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Osseointegration, Orlando, Fla, March 2017 and the 6th Triennial Conference for Advanced Digital Technology in Head and Neck Reconstruction, Amiens, France, May 2017. Abstract: The present report describes the digital design of patient-specific milled abutments for the retention of osseointegrated facial […]

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Minimal Invasive Rhinoplasty: Fat Injection for Nasal Dorsum Contouring. S Lin, YC Hsiao, JJ Huang, CS Chang, PKT Chen, JP Chen, LJ Lo, YR Chen.

Date: March 2017. Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Volume 78, Issue 3, p S117–S123. Purpose: To determine the graft retention rate of fat injection rhinoplasty in the nasal dorsum region using 3dMD System. Materials and Methods: Thirteen consecutive patients (12 women and 1 man) treated by the corresponding author (F.C.S.C.) between April of 2014 and […]

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Radiation-free 3D head shape and volume evaluation after endoscopically assisted strip craniectomy followed by helmet therapy for trigonocephaly. G de Jonga, M Tolhuisen, J Meulstee, F van der Heijden, E van Lindert, W Borstlap, T Maal, H Delye.

Date: February 2017 (Online). Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Introduction: Radiation-free 3D post-operative sequential follow-up in craniosynostosis is hindered by the lack of consistent markers restricting evaluation to subjective comparison. However, using the computed cranial focal point (CCFP), it is possible to perform correct sequential image superposition and objective evaluation. We used this technique for […]

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Three-dimensional evaluation of social smile symmetry. GS Duran, F Dindaroğlu, S Görgülü.

Date: January 2017. Source: The Angle Orthodontist: Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 96-103. Objective: To evaluate the social smile symmetry using three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetric images. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with 3D facial images of 30 individuals (age range 13–25 years). The rest position was considered as the reference image and the social […]

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The Role of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Facial Anatomical Assessment. V Sharma, B Richard.

Date: December 2016 Source: Gray’s Anatomy. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 41st Edition, Elsevier, pp 45-46. Article: The Role of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Facial Anatomical Assessment. Authors: Vikram Sharma, Bruce Richard.

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