Hypermasculinised facial morphology in boys and girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its association with symptomatology. DW Tan, SZ Gilani, MT Maybery, A Mian, A Hunt, M Walters, AJO Whitehouse.

Date: August 2017 Source: nature.com SCiENtifiC REporTS | 7: 9348 Abstract: Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure has been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and facial masculinity. By employing three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry, the current study investigated whether prepubescent boys and girls with ASD present increased facial masculinity compared to typically-developing controls. There were two phases to […]

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A Phenotypically Driven Segmentation for 3-D Facial Morphology: Modularity of 3-D Faces Through Spectral Clustering. D SERO, D VANDERMEULEN, P CLAES.

Date: June 2017 Source: Biological Shape Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ISBSA), pp 249-258. School of Dentistry, UCLA, USA, 19–22 June 2015. Abstract: Facial morphology is the result of mazy interactions between environmental and epigenetic factors that lead to the composition of multiple subunits integrated to function as a whole. In this work, we […]

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Association Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Craniofacial Shape of Children at 12 Months of Age. E Muggli, H Matthews, A Penington, et al.

Date: June 2017 (Online). Source: JAMA Pediatrics, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0778. Question: Is there an association between different levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and child craniofacial shape at 12 months? Findings: This cohort study conducted an objective and sensitive craniofacial phenotype analysis of 415 children, which showed an association between prenatal alcohol exposure and craniofacial shape at almost […]

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3dMD presents latest application of its technology at the @IEEEorg Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition Conference in Washington, DC.

3dMD CEO Chris Lane presented the latest advances in temporal-3D (motion) camera systems for human subject input applications that demand anatomical image precision such as the next generation of face, gesture, and body movement recognition innovations @IEEEorg Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition Conference #FG2017.

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Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate. J Lee, B Ku, PD Combs et al.

Date: June 2017. Source: 3D Research (2017) 8:19. doi:10.1007/s13319-017-0128-9. Abstract: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group […]

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Large Scale 3D Morphable Models. J Booth, A Roussos, A Ponniah, D Dunaway, S Zafeiriou.

Date: April 2017. Source: International Journal of Computer Vision, pp 1–22. Abstract: We present large scale facial model (LSFM)—a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) automatically constructed from 9663 distinct facial identities. To the best of our knowledge LSFM is the largest-scale Morphable Model ever constructed, containing statistical information from a huge variety of the human population. […]

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A new method for three-dimensional evaluation of the cranial shape and the automatic identification of craniosynostosis using 3D stereophotogrammetry. JW Meulstee1, LM Verhamme, WA Borstlap, F Van der Heijden, GA De Jong, T Xi, SJ Bergé, H Delye, TJJ Maal.

Date: April 2017 (Online). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect which can result in abnormal cranial morphology. Three dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry is potentially an ideal technique for the evaluation of cranial morphology and diagnosis of craniosynostosis because it is fast and harmless. This study presents a new […]

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Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation. AA Zaidi , BC Mattern, P Claes, B McEcoy, C Hughes, MD Shriver.

Date: March 2017. Source: PLoS Genetics 13(3): e1006616. Abstract: The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed […]

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A predictive model for obstructive sleep apnea and Down syndrome. BG Skotko et al.

Date: January 2017. Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs frequently in people with Down syndrome (DS) with reported prevalences ranging between 55% and 97%, compared to 1–4% in the neurotypical pediatric population. Sleep studies are often uncomfortable, costly, and poorly tolerated by individuals with DS. The objective of this […]

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A comparison of soft tissue topographical norms for the local ethnic people of Zimbabwe and African American norms based on 3dMD soft tissue photography. E Bhaskar.

Date: December 2016. Source: Master of Science Thesis, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the soft tissue topographical norms for the local ethnic people of Zimbabwe and compare them with the African American norms based on 3dMD soft tissue photography. The rationale for the study is […]

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The 3D Facial Norms Database: Part 1. A Web-Based Craniofacial Anthropometric and Image Repository for the Clinical and Research Community.

Date: November 2016. Source: Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal, 53(6) pp. e185–e197. Background: Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology […]

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The course of positional cranial deformation from 3 to 12 months of age and associated risk factors: a follow-up with 3D imaging. H Aarnivala, V Vuollo, V Harila, T Heikkinen, P Pirttiniemi, L Holmström, AM Valkama.

Date: September 2016. Source: European Journal of Pediatrics, pp 1–11. doi:10.1007/s00431-016-2773-z. Abstract: Deformational plagiocephaly is reported in up to 46.6 % of healthy infants, with the highest point prevalence at around 3 months of age. Few prospective studies on the natural course of skull deformation have been conducted, and we know of no studies using […]

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Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Facial Morphological Variation: A 3D Population-Based Twin Study. J Djordjevic, AI Zhurov, S Richmond, Visigen Consortium.

Date: September 2016 Source: PLoS One. 11(9):e0162250. Introduction: Facial phenotype is influenced by genes and environment; however, little is known about their relative contributions to normal facial morphology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation using a three-dimensional (3D) population-based approach and the classical […]

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Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology. JR Shaffer, E Orlova, MK Lee, EJ Leslie, ZD Raffensperger, CL Heike, more…

Date: August 2016 Source: PLOS Genetics Abstract: Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface […]

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Heritability maps of human face morphology through large-scale automated three-dimensional phenotyping. D Tsagkrasoulis, P Hysi, T Spector, G Montana.

Date: August 2016 Source: ResearchGate Abstract: The human face is a complex trait under strong genetic control, as evidenced by the striking visual similarity between twins. Nevertheless, heritability estimates of facial traits have often been surprisingly low or difficult to replicate. Furthermore, the construction of facial phenotypes that correspond to naturally perceived facial features remains […]

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Multiscale Mechano-Biological Finite Element Modelling of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery—Numerical Study towards Surgical Planning and Cosmetic Outcome Prediction. Vavourakis V, Eiben B, Hipwell JH, Williams NR, Keshtgar M, Hawkes DJ.

Date: July 2016 Source: PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159766. Abstract: Surgical treatment for early-stage breast carcinoma primarily necessitates breast conserving therapy (BCT), where the tumour is removed while preserving the breast shape. To date, there have been very few attempts to develop accurate and efficient computational tools that could be used in the clinical environment for […]

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Hypertelorism and Orofacial Clefting Revisited: An Anthropometric Investigation. SM Weinberg, EJ Leslie, JT Hecht, GL Wehby, FWB Deleyiannis, LM Moreno, K Christensen, ML Marazita.

Date: June 2016. ONLINE AHEAD OF PRINT Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging, we tested whether different forms […]

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Measuring Symmetry in Children With Unrepaired Cleft Lip: Defining a Standard for the Three-Dimensional Mid-facial Reference Plane. J Wu, C Heike, C Birgfeld, K Evans, M Maga, C Morrison, B Saltzman, L Shapiro, R Tse.

Date: March 2016 (Online ahead of print) Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Quantitative measures of facial form to evaluate treatment outcomes for cleft lip (CL) are currently limited. Computer-based analysis of three-dimensional (3D) images provides an opportunity for efficient and objective analysis. The purpose of this study was to define a computer-based standard of […]

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Measuring Symmetry in Children With Cleft Lip. Part 2: Quantification of Nasolabial Symmetry Before and After Cleft Lip Repair. J Wu, S Liang, L Shapiro, R Tse.

Date: December 2015. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: The first part of this study validated an automated computer-based method of identifying the three-dimensional midfacial plane in children with unrepaired cleft lip. The purpose of this second part is to develop computer-based methods to quantify symmetry and to determine the correlation of these measures to […]

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Evaluating 3-Dimensional Soft Tissue Changes in Class III Chinese Patients after Orthognathic Surgery. JX Su, M Yow, MT Chew, HC Wong.

Date: September 2015. Source: 8th International Orthodontic Congress 2015, London. Aim: To evaluate facial soft tissue changes in Class III skeletal Chinese patients who have undergone orthognathic surgery. Objective. To determine if there is a correlation between hard and soft tissue movement after orthognathic surgery. Study Design: This is a retrospective study involving 15 Chinese […]

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A Morphable Profile Model of the Human Head as an Outcome Tool for Craniosynostosis Surgery, C Duncan, R Armstrong, NE Pears.

Date: September 15, 2015. Source: 16th Congress of International Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ISCFS) 2015. Presenter: C Duncan. Introduction: Outcome analysis in craniosynostosis surgery is difficult and often relies on limited anthropometric measurement, qualitative analysis of photography or patient reported outcome. Quantifiable morphable models of the human face have been described but, to date, a […]

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Social smile reproducibility using 3-D stereophotogrammetry and reverse engineering technology. F Dindaroğlu, GS Duran GS, S Görgülü S, E Yetkiner.

Date: August 2015. Source: Angle Orthod. [Epub ahead of print] Objective: To assess the range of social smile reproducibility using 3-D stereophotogrammetry and reverse engineering technology. Materials and Methods: Social smile images of white adolescents (N=15, mean age = 15.4 ±1.5 years; range = 14-17 years) were obtained using 3dMDflex (3dMD, Atlanta, Ga). Each participant was asked […]

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This 4D scanner captures your unique bodily ‘jiggle,’ by Liat Clark.

Date: 11 August 15 Headline: This 4D scanner captures your unique bodily ‘jiggle’ by Liat Clark Source: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2015-08/11/modelling-body-fat-jiggle-in-4d The future avatars we embody will show every lump, bump and jiggle of our soft human flesh – and you have tech to thank. A team at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) has developed […]

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Craniofacial Image Analysis. E Mercan, I Atmosukarto, J Wu, S Liang, LG Shapiro.

Date: July 2015. Source: Health Monitoring and Personalized Feedback using Multimedia Data. Springer. Abstract: Craniofacial researchers have used anthropometric measurements taken directly on the human face for research and medical practice for decades. With the advancements in 3D imaging technologies, computational methods have been developed for the diagnoses of craniofacial syndromes and the analysis of […]

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Comparison of the Facial Morphologies of Identical Twins Using Three-Dimensional Photography: A Case Report. Sedat Altindis, Erdem Hatunoglu, Emine Toptan.

Date: July 2015 Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal. Abstract: The facial morphologies of identical twins were compared using the 3dMD three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry system. 3D images of the faces of 27-year-old identical twins were acquired and then superimposed. The differences were shown in a color histogram generated using 3dMD Vultus software. The faces […]

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Thesis: Three-dimensional age-related changes of the adult face: African American female population. TC Sutherland.

Date: June 2015 Source: Theses. ProQuest, Publication No. 1587083. University of Alabama at Birmingham. Adviser: Chung H. Kau Abstract: Treatment of older adults is one of the fastest growing areas in orthodontic practice. The objectives of this study are to: 1. Investigate the aging of the female African American face using three-dimensional surface imaging to […]

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Thesis: Investigating the Accuracy and Reproducibility of 3dMDface System for Soft Tissue Analysis. YM Kachroo.

Date: June 2015. Source: Theses. ProQuest, Publication No. 1590412. University of California, Los Angeles. Advisers: Yeumin Hong; Won Moon. Objective: Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue (ST) changes from orthodontic treatment can now be evaluated with the development of 3D photography. However, the accuracy and reliability of this method is still in question. This study aims to […]

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Three-dimensional human facial morphologies as robust aging markers. W Chen, W Qian, G Wu, W Chen, B Xian, X Chen, Y Cao, CD Green, F Zhao, K Tang, JD Han.

Date: May 2015. Source: Journal of Cell Research, 25, 574-587. Abstract: Aging is associated with many complex diseases. Reliable prediction of the aging process is important for assessing the risks of aging-associated diseases. However, despite intense research, so far there is no reliable aging marker. Here we addressed this problem by examining whether human 3D […]

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Comparing Facial 3D Analysis With DNA Testing to Determine Zygosities of Twins. V Vuollo, M Sidlauskas, A Sidlauskas, V Harila, L Salomskiene, A Zhurov, L Holmström, P Pirttiniemi, T Heikkinen.

Date: June 2015. Source: Twin Research and Human Genetics, Volume 18, Issue 03, pp 306-313. Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare facial 3D analysis to DNA testing in twin zygosity determinations. Facial 3D images of 106 pairs of young adult Lithuanian twins were taken with a stereophotogrammetric device (3dMD, Atlanta, Georgia) and […]

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Validation of a new method to measure facial soft tissue movements. CA Trotman, T Lu, V Sirianna.

Date: May 2015. Source: International Association for Dental Research, Boston, USA. Poster: #4342. Authors: CA Trotman, T Lu, V Sirianna. School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

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Posterior cranial vault distraction in the management of syndromic multi-suture craniosynostosis: Outcomes and 3D photographic/CT-based morphometric analysis. CR Forrest, BM French, A Clausen.

Date: April 11-14, 2015. Source: AAPS 94th Annual Meeting, Scottsdale, AZ, USA. PURPOSE: Posterior cranial vault distraction has recently been popularized as a first intervention technique in the management of syndromic and multi-suture craniosynostosis. The purpose of this study was to present our experience with posterior cranial vault distraction in the management of these complex […]

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Monitoring of Therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Using Dysmorphometric Facial Phenotypic Signatures. Stefanie Kung, M Walters, P Claes, P LeSouef, J Goldblatt, A Martin, S Balasubramaniam, G Baynam.

Date: March 2015. Source: JIMD Reports 2015, Springer. Abstract: There is a pattern of progressive facial dysmorphology in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). Advances in 3D facial imaging have facilitated the development of tools, including dysmorphometrics, to objectively and precisely detect these facial phenotypes. Therefore, we investigated the application of dysmorphometrics as a noninvasive therapy-monitoring […]

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Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males. SM Weinberg, TE Parsons, ZD Raffensperger.

Date: February 2015. Source: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, 18(1):21-6. Objectives: Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit […]

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Variation and signatures of selection on the human face. J Guo, J Tan, Y Yang, H Zhou, S Hu, A Hashan, N Bahaxar, S Xu, TD Weaver, L Jin, M Stoneking, K Tang.

Date: October 2014 Source: Journal of Human Evolution. Volume 75, pp 143–152. Abstract: There has been much debate about why humans throughout the world differ in facial form. Previous studies of human skull morphology found levels of among-population differentiation that were comparable to those of neutral genetic markers, suggesting that genetic drift (neutral processes) played […]

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Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics. K Kuru, M Niranjan, Y Tunca, E Osvank, T Azim.

Date: October 2014. Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 62(2):105-18. Background: In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype–phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype–phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided […]

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Perceptual differences between men and women: A 3D facial morphometric perspective. S Gilani, A Mian.

Date: August 2014 Source: Int. Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2014, Stockholm, Sweden. © IEEE. pp 2413 – 2418. Abstract: Understanding the features employed by the human visual system in gender classification is considered a critical step towards improving machine based gender classification systems. We propose the use of 3D Euclidean and geodesic distances between […]

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Exploratory genotype–phenotype correlations of facial form and asymmetry in unaffected relatives of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate. SF Miller, SM Weinberg, NL Nidey, DK Defay, ML Marazita, GL Wehby, LM Moreno Uribe.

Date: June 2014 Source: Journal of Anatomy, Volume 224, Issue 6, pp 688-709. Abstract: Family relatives of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) who presumably carry a genetic risk yet do not manifest overt oral clefts, often present with distinct facial morphology of unknown genetic etiology. This study investigates distinct […]

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Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA. P Claes, DK Liberton, K Daniels, KM Rosana, EE Quillen, LN Pearson, B McEvoy, M Bauchet, AA Zaidi, W Yao, H Tang, GS Barsh, DM Absher, MD Shriver.

Date: March 2014 Source: PLOS Genetics. Abstract: Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships […]

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Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype. BJ Smith, N Nidey, SF Miller, LMM Uribe, CL Baum, GS Hamilton, GL Wehby, M Dunnwald.

Date: March-April 2014. Source: Wound Repair and Regeneration, Volume 22, Issue 2, pages 228–238. Abstract: In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging […]

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The cluster assessment of facial attractiveness using fuzzy neural network classifier based on 3D Moiré features. WC Chiang, HH Lin, CS Huang, LJ Lo, SY Wan.

Date: March 2014. Source: Pattern Recognition. Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 1249–1260. Abstract: Facial attractiveness has long been argued upon varied emphases by philosophers, artists, psychologists and biologists. A number of studies empirically investigated how facial attractiveness was influenced by 2D facial characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness and golden ratio. However, few implementations of facial […]

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Detecting Genetic Association of Common Human Facial Morphological Variation Using High Density 3D Image Registration. S Peng, J Tan, S Hu, H Zhou, J Guo, L Jin, K Tang.

Date: December 2013. Source: PLoS Computational Biology, Public Library of Science. Abstract: Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can […]

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BBC: Defining the most ‘normal’ shape of a human skull.

Date: 22 November 2013 Source: BBC News Article: Defining the most ‘normal’ shape of a human skull Reconstructive surgery for people born with a misshapen skull is one of medicine’s most complicated challenges. Part of the problem for surgeons is defining what a normal head actually looks like.  A team of Liverpool-based surgeons, and artists, […]

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Indiana University visualization experts help doctors diagnose fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with 3dMD

Date: October 10, 2013 Source: Indiana University, IT News & Events BLOOMINGTON, Ind. — Indiana University received a $125,000 grant renewal from the National Institutes of Health for ongoing research into detecting fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, a leading but preventable cause of birth defects. IU has been engaged in the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol […]

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Be Part of the Alder Hey Children’s Hospital Headspace Project and Change Lives!

Liverpool, United Kingdom (24-September-13): Alder Hey Children’s Hospital and FACT are looking for volunteers to take part in a groundbreaking project which will impact on the future development of craniofacial surgery. The Headspace project, created by Alder Hey in conjunction with FACT and associated artists will develop a comprehensive database of human head shapes using […]

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BBC News: Cardiff University uses 3D scans to help facial surgery.

Date: 2 August 2013 Source: BBC News News: Cardiff University uses 3D scans to help facial surgery. Patients who need facial surgery and those recovering from strokes could benefit from world-leading research of analysing facial movements in 3D. Scientists at Cardiff University are using cutting-edge face scanners developed by American firm 3dMD. The technology can […]

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Cardiff Scientists and 3dMD Enter a New Dimension in 3D/4D Facial Imaging.

Anaheim, California (23-July-13): A team of Cardiff University clinicians and computer scientists can, for the first time, carry out facial movement research and transform the way patients needing facial surgery are assessed and monitored thanks to a new state-of-the-art 3D surface motion imaging system from 3dMD (3dMD exhibiting at #SIGGRAPH2013 Booth 226). Working alongside the […]

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Improved Detection of Landmarks on 3D Human Face Data. S Liang; S Weinberg; L Shapiro.

Date: July 2013. Source: IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Annual Conference. Abstract: Craniofacial researchers make heavy use of established facial landmarks in their morphometric analyses. For studies on very large facial image datasets, the standard approach of manual landmarking is very labor intensive. With the goal of producing 20 established landmarks, we have […]

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The Use of Pseudo-landmarks for Craniofacial Analysis: A Comparative Study with L1 Regularized Logistic Regression. E Mercan; L Shapiro; S Weinberg; SI Lee.

Date: July 2013. Source: IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Annual Conference. Abstract: Morphometrics, the quantitative analysis of shape, is used by craniofacial researchers to study abnormalities in human face shapes. Most of the work in craniofacial morphometrics uses landmark points that are manually marked on 3D face data and processed via a generalized […]

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Automated Three Dimensional (3D) Measures of the Static Face in Normal and Dysmorphic Conditions: Novel Technology for Facial Measurement. CA Trotman, C Heaston, C Phillips, A Mercado, N Lee, T Hartman.

Date: May 2013 Source: 12th International Congress on Cleft Lip/Palate and Related Craniofacial Anomalies, Lake Buena Vista, Florida Abstract: #1772 Authors: CA Trotman, C Heaston, C Phillips, A Mercado, N Lee, T Hartman. School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

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The facial evolution: looking backward and moving forward. G Baynam, M Walters, P Claes, S Kung, P LeSouef, H Dawkins, D Gillett, J Goldblatt.

Date: January 2013. Source: Human Mutation; 34(1): pp 14-22. Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) facial analysis is ideal for high-resolution, nonionizing, noninvasive objective, high-throughput phenotypic, and phenomic studies. It is a natural complement to (epi)genetic technologies to facilitate advances in the understanding of rare and common diseases. The face is uniquely reflective of the primordial tissues, and […]

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