A Phenotypically Driven Segmentation for 3-D Facial Morphology: Modularity of 3-D Faces Through Spectral Clustering. D SERO, D VANDERMEULEN, P CLAES.
Date: June 2017 Source: Biological Shape Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ISBSA), pp 249-258. School of Dentistry, UCLA, USA, 19–22 June 2015. Abstract: Facial morphology is the result of mazy interactions between environmental and epigenetic factors that lead to the composition of multiple subunits integrated to function as a whole. In this work, we […]Read More
Association Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Craniofacial Shape of Children at 12 Months of Age. E Muggli, H Matthews, A Penington, et al.
Date: June 2017 (Online). Source: JAMA Pediatrics, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0778. Question: Is there an association between different levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and child craniofacial shape at 12 months? Findings: This cohort study conducted an objective and sensitive craniofacial phenotype analysis of 415 children, which showed an association between prenatal alcohol exposure and craniofacial shape at almost […]Read More
3dMD presents latest application of its technology at the @IEEEorg Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition Conference in Washington, DC.
3dMD CEO Chris Lane presented the latest advances in temporal-3D (motion) camera systems for human subject input applications that demand anatomical image precision such as the next generation of face, gesture, and body movement recognition innovations @IEEEorg Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition Conference #FG2017.Read More
Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate. J Lee, B Ku, PD Combs et al.
Date: June 2017. Source: 3D Research (2017) 8:19. doi:10.1007/s13319-017-0128-9. Abstract: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group […]Read More
The Effects of Objective 3D Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness. CD Hatch, GL Wehby, NL Nidey, LM Moreno Uribe.
Date: May 2017 Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. We evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. Patient and Methods: […]Read More
Genome-wide association study of facial morphology reveals novel associations with FREM1 and PARK2. MK Lee, JR Shaffer JR, EJ Leslie, E Orlova, JC Carlson, E Feingold, ML Marazita, SM Weinberg.
Date: April 2017. Source: PLoS One. 12(4): e0176566. Abstract: Several studies have now shown evidence of association between common genetic variants and quantitative facial traits in humans. The reported associations generally involve simple univariate measures and likely represent only a small fraction of the genetic loci influencing facial morphology. In this study, we applied factor […]Read More
2017 Facial Expression Experiment at the Science Museum, London
3dMD is excited to be taking part in a fascinating experiment studying facial expressions in collaboration with researchers from Imperial College London as part of the Science Museum’s ongoing Live Science programme from 10 April 2017 – 2 July 2017 in London. During the experiment visitors are asked to make a range of facial expressions […]Read More
Large Scale 3D Morphable Models. J Booth, A Roussos, A Ponniah, D Dunaway, S Zafeiriou.
Date: April 2017. Source: International Journal of Computer Vision, pp 1–22. Abstract: We present large scale facial model (LSFM)—a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) automatically constructed from 9663 distinct facial identities. To the best of our knowledge LSFM is the largest-scale Morphable Model ever constructed, containing statistical information from a huge variety of the human population. […]Read More
A new method for three-dimensional evaluation of the cranial shape and the automatic identification of craniosynostosis using 3D stereophotogrammetry. JW Meulstee1, LM Verhamme, WA Borstlap, F Van der Heijden, GA De Jong, T Xi, SJ Bergé, H Delye, TJJ Maal.
Date: April 2017 (Online). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect which can result in abnormal cranial morphology. Three dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry is potentially an ideal technique for the evaluation of cranial morphology and diagnosis of craniosynostosis because it is fast and harmless. This study presents a new […]Read More
Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation. AA Zaidi , BC Mattern, P Claes, B McEcoy, C Hughes, MD Shriver.
Date: March 2017. Source: PLoS Genetics 13(3): e1006616. Abstract: The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed […]Read More
A predictive model for obstructive sleep apnea and Down syndrome. BG Skotko et al.
Date: January 2017. Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs frequently in people with Down syndrome (DS) with reported prevalences ranging between 55% and 97%, compared to 1–4% in the neurotypical pediatric population. Sleep studies are often uncomfortable, costly, and poorly tolerated by individuals with DS. The objective of this […]Read More
The Role of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Facial Anatomical Assessment. V Sharma, B Richard.
Date: December 2016 Source: Gray’s Anatomy. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 41st Edition, Elsevier, pp 45-46. Article: The Role of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Facial Anatomical Assessment. Authors: Vikram Sharma, Bruce Richard.Read More
A comparison of soft tissue topographical norms for the local ethnic people of Zimbabwe and African American norms based on 3dMD soft tissue photography. E Bhaskar.
Date: December 2016. Source: Master of Science Thesis, The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the soft tissue topographical norms for the local ethnic people of Zimbabwe and compare them with the African American norms based on 3dMD soft tissue photography. The rationale for the study is […]Read More
A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit. KH KIM, KS YOUNG, Y BERNAL, A BOPPANA, LQ VU, EA BENSON, S JARVIS, SL RAJULU.
Date: December 2016 Source: 2016 International Conference on 3D Body Scanning, Lugano, Switzerland. Abstract: Suboptimal suit fit is a known risk factor for crew member shoulder injury. Suit fit assessment is however prohibitively time consuming and cannot be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. In this work, we have developed a new […]Read More
Body Labs and 3dMD Announce Partnership to Deliver First End-to-End 3D Body Scan Processing Solution.
NEW YORK — October 5, 2016 — Body Labs, provider of the world’s most advanced technology for analyzing the human body’s shape, pose and motion, announced today a partnership with 3dMD, the world’s leading provider of high-precision static-3D and temporal-3D (marker-less 4D) systems for seamlessly capturing the human body’s anatomical shape, pose, and motion, to […]Read More
Measuring Symmetry in Children With Cleft Lip. Part 3: Quantifying Nasal Symmetry and Nasal Normalcy Before and After Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair. S Liang, L Shapiro, R Tse.
Date: October 2016 (Online). Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: The purpose of this project was to develop objective computer-based methods to measure nasal asymmetry and abnormality in children undergoing treatment of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and to determine the correlation of these measures to clinical expectations. Participants: Thirty infants with UCL undergoing cleft lip […]Read More
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Facial Morphological Variation: A 3D Population-Based Twin Study. J Djordjevic, AI Zhurov, S Richmond, Visigen Consortium.
Date: September 2016 Source: PLoS One. 11(9):e0162250. Introduction: Facial phenotype is influenced by genes and environment; however, little is known about their relative contributions to normal facial morphology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation using a three-dimensional (3D) population-based approach and the classical […]Read More
Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology. JR Shaffer, E Orlova, MK Lee, EJ Leslie, ZD Raffensperger, CL Heike, more…
Date: August 2016 Source: PLOS Genetics Abstract: Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface […]Read More
Heritability maps of human face morphology through large-scale automated three-dimensional phenotyping. D Tsagkrasoulis, P Hysi, T Spector, G Montana.
Date: August 2016 Source: ResearchGate Abstract: The human face is a complex trait under strong genetic control, as evidenced by the striking visual similarity between twins. Nevertheless, heritability estimates of facial traits have often been surprisingly low or difficult to replicate. Furthermore, the construction of facial phenotypes that correspond to naturally perceived facial features remains […]Read More
Multiscale Mechano-Biological Finite Element Modelling of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery—Numerical Study towards Surgical Planning and Cosmetic Outcome Prediction. Vavourakis V, Eiben B, Hipwell JH, Williams NR, Keshtgar M, Hawkes DJ.
Date: July 2016 Source: PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159766. Abstract: Surgical treatment for early-stage breast carcinoma primarily necessitates breast conserving therapy (BCT), where the tumour is removed while preserving the breast shape. To date, there have been very few attempts to develop accurate and efficient computational tools that could be used in the clinical environment for […]Read More
A first look inside the new facility where Under Armour creates athletic apparel of the future. Business Insider.
Date: July 8, 2016. Source: Business Insider. Summary: Under Armour’s new innovation lab, the Lighthouse, is a state-of-the art facility to create and test the next generation of athletic products. It will also create new capabilities for faster and more efficient manufacturing.Read More
Latest 3dMDbody.t System (7fps) demonstrated by customer at ISEA 2016 in Delft.
Date: July 2016 Source: 11th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association. Delft, The Netherlands. Activity: The latest-generation dynamic 3dMDbody.t System (7fps) located in the Industrial Design Engineering School, TU Delft, a long-standing 3dMD customer, was demonstrated to delegates participating in the 11th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association.Read More
Under Armour Opens UA Lighthouse Manufacturing And Design Leadership Center In The Brand’s Hometown Of Baltimore. [3dMD is a best-in-class Lighthouse Development Partner.]
Date: June 28, 2016 Source: Under Armour, Inc. distributed via PR Newswire Headline: Under Armour Opens UA Lighthouse Manufacturing And Design Leadership Center In The Brand’s Hometown Of Baltimore. State-of-the-art Facility in the USA to Serve as the Epicenter for Product and Process Innovation. BALTIMORE, June 28, 2016 /PRNewswire/ — Today, Under Armour (NYSE: UA, […]Read More
Under Armour’s new innovation lab has sneaker-making robots and high-tech body scanners. Tech Insider.
Date: June 28, 2016 Source: Tech Insider. By Leanna Garfield Headline: The process of making athletic shoes and clothing has changed very little in the last half-century. Apart from industrial-sized machines that speed up production, many factories’ operations look pretty similar. Under Armour wants to reinvent the process in its giant design and manufacturing test […]Read More
Hypertelorism and Orofacial Clefting Revisited: An Anthropometric Investigation. SM Weinberg, EJ Leslie, JT Hecht, GL Wehby, FWB Deleyiannis, LM Moreno, K Christensen, ML Marazita.
Date: June 2016. ONLINE AHEAD OF PRINT Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging, we tested whether different forms […]Read More
The MC1R Gene and Youthful Looks. F Liu, MA Hamer, J Deelen, JS Lall, L Jacobs, D van Heemst, PG Murray, A Wollstein, AJM de Craen, HW Uh, CQ Zeng, A Hofman, AG Uitterlinden, JJ Houwing-Duistermaat, LM Pardo, M Beekman, PE Slagboom, T Nijsten, M Kayser, DA Gunn.
Date: April 2016. Source: Current Biology, Volume 26, Issue 9, 9 May 2016, Pages 1213–1220. Highlights: • We present the first genetic associations with how old people look (perceived age) • Variants in MC1R, a pigmentation gene, significantly associated with perceived age • The MC1R association was independent of wrinkling, skin color, and sun exposure […]Read More
Using the 3D Facial Norms Database to investigate craniofacial sexual dimorphism in healthy children, adolescents, and adults. MJ Kesterke, ZD Raffensperger, CL Heike, ML Cunningham, JT Hecht, CH Kau, NL Nidey, LM Moreno, GL Wehby, ML Marazita, and SM Weinberg.
Date: April 2016 Source: Biology of Sex Differences. Background: Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology at different ages. […]Read More
Appealing Female Avatars from 3D Body Scans: Perceptual Effects of Stylization. R Fleming, BJ Mohler, J Romero, MJ Black, M Breidt.
Date: March 2016. Source: Semantic Scholar.org. Abstract: Advances in 3D scanning technology allow us to create realistic virtual avatars from full body 3D scan data. However, negative reactions to some realistic computer generated humans suggest that this approach might not always provide the most appealing results. Using styles derived from existing popular character designs, we […]Read More
Measuring Symmetry in Children With Unrepaired Cleft Lip: Defining a Standard for the Three-Dimensional Mid-facial Reference Plane. J Wu, C Heike, C Birgfeld, K Evans, M Maga, C Morrison, B Saltzman, L Shapiro, R Tse.
Date: March 2016 (Online ahead of print) Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Quantitative measures of facial form to evaluate treatment outcomes for cleft lip (CL) are currently limited. Computer-based analysis of three-dimensional (3D) images provides an opportunity for efficient and objective analysis. The purpose of this study was to define a computer-based standard of […]Read More
Molecular genetic analysis in 14 czech kabuki syndrome patients is confirming the utility of phenotypic scoring. J Paděrová; A Holubová; M Simandlová; A Puchmajerová; M Vlčková; M Malíková; R Pourová; S Vejvalková; M Havlovicová; M Šenkeříková; N Ptáková; J Drábová; J Geryk; A Maver; A Křepelová; M Macek.
Date: February 2016. Source: Clinical Genetics. The International Journal of Genetics, Molecular, and Personalized Medicine. Abstract: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a dominantly inherited disorder mainly due to de novo pathogenic variation in KMT2D or KDM6A genes. Initially, a representative cohort of 14 Czech cases with clinical features suggestive of KS was analyzed by experienced clinical […]Read More
Facial morphology in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and moderate to severe temporomandibular joint involvement. YJ Hsieh, TA Darvann, NV Hermann, P Larsen, YF Liao, J Bjoern-Joergensen, S Kreiborg.
Date: February 2016 Source: American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics. Volume 149, Issue 2, Pages 182–191. Highlights: • We evaluated lateral facial morphology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with moderate and severe TMJ involvement. • Differences in their lateral facial morphologies between unilateral and bilateral TMJ involvement were also assessed. Introduction: The aims of […]Read More
Measuring Symmetry in Children With Cleft Lip. Part 2: Quantification of Nasolabial Symmetry Before and After Cleft Lip Repair. J Wu, S Liang, L Shapiro, R Tse.
Date: December 2015. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: The first part of this study validated an automated computer-based method of identifying the three-dimensional midfacial plane in children with unrepaired cleft lip. The purpose of this second part is to develop computer-based methods to quantify symmetry and to determine the correlation of these measures to […]Read More
Regional facial asymmetries and attractiveness of the face. AE Kaipainen, KR Sieber, RM Nada, TJ Maal, C Katsaros, PS Fudalej.
Date: December 2015 Source: The European Journal of Orthodontics. Objective: Facial attractiveness is an important factor in our social interactions. It is still not entirely clear which factors influence the attractiveness of a face and facial asymmetry appears to play a certain role. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between […]Read More
Application of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacture in Unilateral Alloplastic Microtia Reconstruction, H Chen, ZC Chen.
Date: September 17, 2015. Source: 16th Congress of International Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ISCFS) 2015. Presenter: Hsin-Yu Chen. Background: The advances in 3D scanning, computer-assisted design and manufacture (CAD/CAM), and rapid-prototyping technology make customizing a symmetric auricular framework feasible for unilateral microtia patients. In this study, we used an active stereo-photogrammetry system to acquire the […]Read More
A Morphable Profile Model of the Human Head as an Outcome Tool for Craniosynostosis Surgery, C Duncan, R Armstrong, NE Pears.
Date: September 15, 2015. Source: 16th Congress of International Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ISCFS) 2015. Presenter: C Duncan. Introduction: Outcome analysis in craniosynostosis surgery is difficult and often relies on limited anthropometric measurement, qualitative analysis of photography or patient reported outcome. Quantifiable morphable models of the human face have been described but, to date, a […]Read More
Dyna: A Model of Dynamic Human Shape in Motion. Gerard Pons-Moll, Javier Romero, Naureen Mahmood, Michael J. Black.
Date: August 2015. Source: SIGGRAPH 2015. Journal ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), Volume 34 Issue 4, Article No. 120. SIGGRAPH Presentation: https://youtu.be/mWthea2K8-Q Abstract: To look human, digital full-body avatars need to have soft-tissue deformations like those of real people. We learn a model of soft-tissue deformations from examples using a high-resolution 4D capture system and […]Read More
This 4D scanner captures your unique bodily ‘jiggle,’ by Liat Clark.
Date: 11 August 15 Headline: This 4D scanner captures your unique bodily ‘jiggle’ by Liat Clark Source: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2015-08/11/modelling-body-fat-jiggle-in-4d The future avatars we embody will show every lump, bump and jiggle of our soft human flesh – and you have tech to thank. A team at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) has developed […]Read More
Analysis of a 3D Anthropometric Data Set of Children for Design Applications. L Goto, W Lee, Y Song, J Molenbroek, R Goossens.
Date: August 2015 Source: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2015), Melbourne, Australia. Abstract: Designers integrate the use of anthropometric data in their design process to optimize the usability and functioning of a product while improving comfort and safety. Information regarding the size and shape of the human body are important […]Read More
Craniofacial Image Analysis. E Mercan, I Atmosukarto, J Wu, S Liang, LG Shapiro.
Date: July 2015. Source: Health Monitoring and Personalized Feedback using Multimedia Data. Springer. Abstract: Craniofacial researchers have used anthropometric measurements taken directly on the human face for research and medical practice for decades. With the advancements in 3D imaging technologies, computational methods have been developed for the diagnoses of craniofacial syndromes and the analysis of […]Read More
Thesis: Three-dimensional age-related changes of the adult face: African American female population. TC Sutherland.
Date: June 2015 Source: Theses. ProQuest, Publication No. 1587083. University of Alabama at Birmingham. Adviser: Chung H. Kau Abstract: Treatment of older adults is one of the fastest growing areas in orthodontic practice. The objectives of this study are to: 1. Investigate the aging of the female African American face using three-dimensional surface imaging to […]Read More
Thesis: Investigating the Accuracy and Reproducibility of 3dMDface System for Soft Tissue Analysis. YM Kachroo.
Date: June 2015. Source: Theses. ProQuest, Publication No. 1590412. University of California, Los Angeles. Advisers: Yeumin Hong; Won Moon. Objective: Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue (ST) changes from orthodontic treatment can now be evaluated with the development of 3D photography. However, the accuracy and reliability of this method is still in question. This study aims to […]Read More
Three-dimensional human facial morphologies as robust aging markers. W Chen, W Qian, G Wu, W Chen, B Xian, X Chen, Y Cao, CD Green, F Zhao, K Tang, JD Han.
Date: May 2015. Source: Journal of Cell Research, 25, 574-587. Abstract: Aging is associated with many complex diseases. Reliable prediction of the aging process is important for assessing the risks of aging-associated diseases. However, despite intense research, so far there is no reliable aging marker. Here we addressed this problem by examining whether human 3D […]Read More
Precision of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD) in anthropometry of the auricle and its application in microtia reconstruction. ZC Chen, MN Albdour, JA Lizardo, YA Chen, KT Chen.
Date: May 2015. Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 68, Issue 5, Pages 622–631. Background: The advent of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry in recent years has vastly helped the craniomaxillofacial field improve in terms of preoperative and intraoperative decision making. With regard to the auricle though, there is paucity of research as to the […]Read More
Comparing Facial 3D Analysis With DNA Testing to Determine Zygosities of Twins. V Vuollo, M Sidlauskas, A Sidlauskas, V Harila, L Salomskiene, A Zhurov, L Holmström, P Pirttiniemi, T Heikkinen.
Date: June 2015. Source: Twin Research and Human Genetics, Volume 18, Issue 03, pp 306-313. Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare facial 3D analysis to DNA testing in twin zygosity determinations. Facial 3D images of 106 pairs of young adult Lithuanian twins were taken with a stereophotogrammetric device (3dMD, Atlanta, Georgia) and […]Read More
Validation of a new method to measure facial soft tissue movements. CA Trotman, T Lu, V Sirianna.
Date: May 2015. Source: International Association for Dental Research, Boston, USA. Poster: #4342. Authors: CA Trotman, T Lu, V Sirianna. School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.Read More
Monitoring of Therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Using Dysmorphometric Facial Phenotypic Signatures. Stefanie Kung, M Walters, P Claes, P LeSouef, J Goldblatt, A Martin, S Balasubramaniam, G Baynam.
Date: March 2015. Source: JIMD Reports 2015, Springer. Abstract: There is a pattern of progressive facial dysmorphology in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). Advances in 3D facial imaging have facilitated the development of tools, including dysmorphometrics, to objectively and precisely detect these facial phenotypes. Therefore, we investigated the application of dysmorphometrics as a noninvasive therapy-monitoring […]Read More
Establishment of Reference Frame for Sequential Facial Biometrics. L Zou, P Hao, M McCarthy
Date: October 2014. Source: 3D Body Scanning Conference 2014, Lugano, Switzerland. Abstract: Facial biometrics as an objective, accurate, living parts measurement methodology, is widely used in assisting diagnose and treatment plan within the practice of medicine and dentistry. It is particularly popular that the quantification of changes before and after a clinical intervention. However the […]Read More
Variation and signatures of selection on the human face. J Guo, J Tan, Y Yang, H Zhou, S Hu, A Hashan, N Bahaxar, S Xu, TD Weaver, L Jin, M Stoneking, K Tang.
Date: October 2014 Source: Journal of Human Evolution. Volume 75, pp 143–152. Abstract: There has been much debate about why humans throughout the world differ in facial form. Previous studies of human skull morphology found levels of among-population differentiation that were comparable to those of neutral genetic markers, suggesting that genetic drift (neutral processes) played […]Read More
Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics. K Kuru, M Niranjan, Y Tunca, E Osvank, T Azim.
Date: October 2014. Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 62(2):105-18. Background: In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype–phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype–phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided […]Read More