Stem cell enriched lipotransfer reverses the effects of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis. Almadori A, Griffin M, Ryan CM, Hunt DF, Hansen E, Kumar R, et al.
Date: July 2019. Source: PLoS ONE 14(7): e0218068. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218068 Abstract: Oro-facial fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (Scleroderma;SSc) has a major impact on mouth function, facial appearance, and patient quality of life. Lipotransfer is a method of reconstruction that can be used in the treatment of oro-facial fibrosis. The effect of this treatment not only restores oro-facial […]Read More
Functional decline in facial expression generation in older women: A cross-sectional study using three-dimensional morphometry. C Tanikawa, S Takata, R Takano, H Yamanami, Z Edlira, K Takada.
Date: July 2019. Source: PLoS ONE 14(7): e0219451. Abstract: Facial expressions play an important role in the communication of emotions and thoughts. It is no exaggeration to say that the face is an organ of communication. Aging is related to impairment of various motor and cognitive functions. A recent study that examined the perception of […]Read More
Facial Gender Affirmation Surgery. DE Morris, LP Zhao.
Date: July 2019. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Volume 30, Issue 5, p 1403–1405. Abstract: Facial procedures directed at gender affirmation are uniquely tailored to the individual patient and may affect soft tissue and skeletal structures over the entire face—from the chin through the upper forehead. Complete photographic and radiographic documentation that addresses these areas […]Read More
Evaluation of preferred lip position according to different tip rotations of the nose in class I young adult subjects. J Feghali, E Khoury, NM Souccar, R Akl, J Ghoubril.
Date: June 2019. Source: International Orthodontics (Online). Introduction: The mouth plays an important role in the overall aesthetic appearance of the face. The aims of this study were to determine the optimal antero-posterior (AP) lip position relative to various rotations of the nasal tip and assess the impact of the nasolabial angle on facial aesthetics. […]Read More
Increased facial asymmetry in autism spectrum conditions is associated with symptom presentation. M Boutrus, SZ Gilani, GA Alvares, MT Maybery, DW Tan, A Mian, AJO Whitehouse.
Date: June 2019. Source: Autism Research. ©2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Abstract: A key research priority in the study of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is the discovery of biological markers that may help to identify and elucidate etiologically distinct subgroups. One physical marker that has received increasing research attention is facial […]Read More
Full‐Arch Implant‐Supported Rehabilitation Guided by a Predicted Lateral Profile of Soft Tissue. JJ Shao, C Xue, H Zhang, L Li.
Date: June 2019. Source: Journal of Prosthodontics. Abstract: In full‐arch implant‐supported rehabilitation of patients with severe periodontitis, prediction of lateral facial profile with modified dental position remains a challenge, especially for patients with protruded anterior teeth. This clinical report describes a digital workflow to predict lateral profiles and then guide the implant placement and restoration […]Read More
Uniform 3D meshes to establish normative facial averages of healthy infants during the first year of life. Brons S, Meulstee JW, Nada RM, Kuijpers MAR, Bronkhorst EM, Bergé SJ, et al.
Date: May 2019. Source: PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217267. Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are replacing direct anthropometry as the preferred method for capturing facial soft-tissues. Aims of this study were: (1) to develop normative average 3D faces of healthy infants aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and (2) to describe normative average 3D […]Read More
Do intraoperative steroids reduce facial swelling? A new assessment tool for assessing facial swelling. E Brecher, M Kugathasan, A Viswanath, M Papageorge.
Date: May 2019. Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 48:210. Background: Post-operative swelling is a common sequala to surgical extraction of impacted third molars. The use of intraoperative steroids is a common practice among oral surgeons to reduce swelling. However, there is conflicting data regarding about the efficacy of steroid use intraoperatively to […]Read More
AMASS: Archive of Motion Capture as Surface Shapes. N Mahmood , N Ghorbani, NF Troje, G Pons-Moll, MJ Black.
Date: April 2019. Source: Cornell University Library – arXiv.org, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Abstract: Large datasets are the cornerstone of recent advances in computer vision using deep learning. In contrast, existing human motion capture (mocap) datasets are small and the motions limited, hampering progress on learning models of human motion. While there are many […]Read More
Linking the Expression of Facial Shape and BMI via the Hippo Signaling Pathway. S Ali, DE Ehrlich, LM Moreno Uribe, BA Amendt, MK Lee, JR Shaffer, ML Marazita, SM Weinberg, SF Miller.
Date: April 2019. Source: The FASEB Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1_supplement. Abstract: Obesity rates have more than tripled in children and adolescents in recent years. While many studies have examined the relationship between obesity and chronic illnesses, the impact of obesity on craniofacial form is less understood. Research in this area has suggested that obesity […]Read More
A Morphometric Assessment of the Influence of EGCG on Down Syndrome Facial Morphology. J Cintron, M Dierssen, R Gonzalez, J Sharpe, N Martinez-Abadias, J Starbuck.
Date: April 2019. Source: The FASEB Journal, Vol 33, No. 1_supplement. Abstract: Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic birth defect that results from Trisomy 21, which causes an overexpression of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) genes. Overexpressed HSA21 genes disturb development by altering morphogenesis and growth, resulting in cognitive impairment, characteristic facial morphology, and many other […]Read More
MeshGAN: Non-linear 3D Morphable Models of Faces. S Cheng, M Bronstein, Y Zhou, I Kotsia, M Pantic, S Zafeiriou.
Date: April 2019. Source: Cornell University Library – arXiv.org, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Abstract: Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are currently the method of choice for generating visual data. Certain GAN architectures and training methods have demonstrated exceptional performance in generating realistic synthetic images (in particular, of human faces). However, for 3D object, GANs still […]Read More
Quantitative evaluation of local head malformations from 3 dimensional photography: application to craniosynostosis. L Tu, AR Porras, A Oh, N Lepore, GC Buck, D Tsering, A Enquobahrie, R Keating, GF Rogers, MG Linguraru.
Date: March 2019. Source: Proc. SPIE 10950, Medical Imaging 2019: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 1095035. Abstract: The evaluation of head malformations plays an essential role in the early diagnosis, the decision to perform surgery and the assessment of the surgical outcome of patients with craniosynostosis. Clinicians rely on two metrics to evaluate the head shape: head circumference […]Read More
Three-Dimensional Assessment of Morphological Changes Following Nasoalveolar Molding Therapy in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Case Report. E Staderini, R Patini, A Camodeca, F Guglielmi, P Gallenzi.
Date: March 2019. Source: Dentistry Journal, 7(1), 27. Abstract: The applications of computer-guided technologies for three-dimensional image analysis provide a unique opportunity to quantify the morphological dimensional changes of the face in a practical and convenient way. Symmetry of the nasolabial area is one of the main factors of facial attractiveness as well as being […]Read More
Quantifying faces three-dimensionally in orthodontic practice. C Tanikawa, O Akcam, K Takada.
Date: March 2019. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery (ONLINE). Objective: The purpose of this study was to formulate and demonstrate a method for quantifying and visualizing the three-dimensional (3-D) configuration of the soft tissues of the face at rest to facilitate a quantitative and instantaneous understanding of a patient’s static facial form characteristics. Materials and […]Read More
Lip position analysis of young women with different skeletal patterns during posed smiling using 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetry. H Li, T Cao, H Zhou, Y Hou.
Date: January 2019. Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 155, Issue 1, Pages 64-70. Highlights: • Posed smile, lip position, and skeletal patterns were investigated in young women. • Significant differences were found in interlabial gap and in the vertical, average, and horizontal groups. • Intercommissural width did not differ significantly among […]Read More
Nasolabial shape differences and esthetics in unilateral cleft lip and palate: A comparison of nasolabial shape using a mean 3D facial template. MA Kuijpers, TJ Maal, JW Meulstee, CE Carels, EM Bronkhorst, SJ Bergé, PS Fudalej.
Date: November 2018. Source: 3D imaging in patients with orofacial clefts. Chapter 6. Objective: To determine the amount of deviation in nasolabial shape in patients with a cleft, compared with an average non-cleft face, and assess whether this difference was related to nasolabial esthetics. Methods: 3D stereophotogrammetric images of 60 patients with a unilateral cleft […]Read More
Combined use of a facial scanner and an intraoral scanner to acquire a digital scan for the fabrication of an orbital prosthesis. H Liu, S Bai. X Yu, Y Zhao.
Date: November 2018 ONLINE. Source: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Abstract: For a patient with a unilateral orbital defect, an esthetic orbital prosthesis plays an essential role in enhancing quality of life. This technique describes the combined use of a facial scanner and an intraoral scanner to acquire the digital scan for the design and […]Read More
Anatomic approximation approach to correction of transverse facial clefts. RW Tse, RJ Knight, DM Fisher.
Date: November 2018. Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 71, Issue 11, pp 1600-1608. Abstract: Transverse clefts of the oral cavity have significant impacts on both appearance and function. Many methods of repair have been described, but there is no consensus on optimal approach. In addition, dissatisfaction with scars, distortion of appearance, […]Read More
Intelligent Harvesting of High-Precision 4D Data of Human Subjects in a Personalized Digital Economy. Chris Lane.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Chris LANE, 3dMD Ltd. Session: Technical Session 10: Full Body Scanning & ProcessingRead More
Potential of 3D Surface Imaging for Quantitative Analysis of Fat Grafting. MK Markey, F Merchant, GP Reece et al.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Mia K Markey Session: Technical Session 3: 3D Face & Body Scanning in Medicine Abstract: Autologous fat grafting is increasingly employed to address volume asymmetry and contour irregularity following breast reconstruction for breast cancer. However, there are no well-established […]Read More
Pushing the Envelope in Dense-Surface 4D/Motion Capture of the Body, Head, Hands, and Feet. Chris Lane.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Chris LANE, 3dMD Ltd. Session: Technical Session 2: 3D Body Scanning Systems IRead More
A New Method for Finding the Shoulder Complex Rotation Centre Using 3D Body Scanning. SG Rozevink, I Kingma, D Spies et al.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: SG Rozevink Session: Technical Session 1: Medical Applications Abstract: To avoid radiation exposure to the body, the rotation centre of the shoulder complex is often assessed using the Optotrak motion capture system instead of X-ray imaging. Recently, 3D body […]Read More
Challenges with Life Surface Imaging. L Zou, R Richard, J Blythe, N Donos.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Lifong ZOU Session: Technical Session 3: 3D Face & Body Scanning in Medicine Abstract: Stereo photogrammetry has a clear role in clinical research, treatment planning and effectiveness assessment within the domain of medicine and dentistry. Recently more computational automatic […]Read More
Both the Observer’s Expertise and the Subject’s Facial Symmetry Can Affect Anatomical Position of the Head. PH Sutton, J Gateno, JD English, J Paranilam, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.
Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: It is easier for us to judge facial deformity when the patient’s head is in anatomic position. The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) if a group of expert observers agree more than a group of non-experts on what is the correct […]Read More
Esthetic evaluation of facial cheek volume: A study using 3D stereophotogrammetry, J Feng, HY Yu, YJ Yin, YQ Yan, Z Wang, D Bai, XL Han.
Date: October 2018. Source: The Angle Orthodontist. Objective: To investigate the influence of cheek volume on facial esthetics judged by orthodontists and non-specialists. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female’s natural and smiling face was captured by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Cheek volume of the 3dMD image was altered to different degrees three-dimensionally. For the natural and smiling […]Read More
Regression of cephalic index following endoscopic repair of sagittal synostosis. NA Pickersgill, GB Skolnick, SD Naidoo, MD Smyth, KB Patel.
Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics [Online Before Print]. Objective: Metrics used to quantify preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes for patients with sagittal synostosis include cephalic index (CI), the well-known standard, and the recently described adjusted cephalic index (aCI), which accounts for altered euryon location. This study tracks the time course of these […]Read More
Applications and limitations of using patient-specific 3D printed molds in autologous breast reconstruction. S Hummelink, AC Verhulst, TJJ Maal, DJO Ulrich.
Date: October 2018. Source: European Journal of Plastic Surgery, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 571–576. Background: Over the last years, several techniques have been proposed to improve the outcome of autologous breast reconstruction procedures. One of these innovations describes patient-specific, three-dimensional (3D) printed breast molds for intraoperative use based on 3D stereophotogrammetry. In this article, […]Read More
Effect of surrogate design on the measured stiffness of snowboarding wrist protectors. C Adams, D James, T Senior, T Allen, N Hamilton.
Date: September 2018. Source: Sports Engineering, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 217–225. Abstract: In snowboarding, the wrist is the most common injury site, as snowboarders often put their arms out to cushion a fall. This can result in a compressive load through the carpals coupled with wrist hyperextension, leading to ligament sprains or carpal and […]Read More
Reconstruction of the oral commissure in patients with unilateral transverse facial cleft. M Tuersunjiang, X Long, Y Fu, J Ke, H He, J Li.
Date: September 2018. Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 621-625. Abstract: The normal commissure is not a simple joint of the upper and lower lip, but a triangular mucosal area. To reconstruct a symmetrical oral commissure in patients with a unilateral transverse facial cleft, we designed composite vermilion […]Read More
DeepWrinkles: Accurate and Realistic Clothing Modeling. Zorah Lähner, Daniel Cremers, Tony Tung.
Date: September 2018. Source: 15th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Munich, Germany. Abstract: We present a novel method to generate accurate and realistic clothing deformation from real data capture. Previous methods for realistic cloth modeling mainly rely on intensive computation of physics-based simulation (with numerous heuristic parameters), while models reconstructed from visual observations typically […]Read More
Generating 3D Faces using Convolutional Mesh Autoencoders. A Ranjan, T Bolkart, S Sanyal, MJ Black.
Date: September 2018. Source: 15th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Munich, Germany, (pp 704-720). Abstract: Learned 3D representations of human faces are useful for computer vision problems such as 3D face tracking and reconstruction from images, as well as graphics applications such as character generation and animation. Traditional models learn a latent representation of […]Read More
A scale space approach for exploring structure in spherical data. V Vuollo, L Holmström.
Date: September 2018. Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 125, pp 57-69. Highlights: • A novel scale space technique for analyzing spherical data is proposed. • Distributions of normal vector directions computed from a 3dMDhead image are analyzed. • A movie is a convenient way to explore the maps included in a SphereSiZer atlas. […]Read More
Development of three-dimensional facial expression models using morphing methods for fabricating facial prostheses. A Matsuoka, F Yoshioka, S Ozawa, J Takebe.
Date: September 2018. Source: Journal of Prosthodontic Research. Purpose: It is essential to fabricate a best-fit three-dimensional (3D) facial prosthesis model capable of facial expressions. In order for the facial prosthesis to remain in position, especially around marginal areas subject to movement, a new method of making 3D facial expression models using time-series data allowing […]Read More
Non-radiographic severity measurement of pectus excavatum. DP Bliss Jr, NA Vaughan, RM Walk, JA Naiditch, AA Kane, RR Hallac.
Date: September 2018 [Online Before Print]. Source: Journal of Surgical Research, Volume 233, pp 376-380. Background: o avoid the radiation exposure of CT imaging and the expense of CT or MRI studies, we sought to develop a non-radiographic severity measurement of pectus excavatum based on 3D photogrammetric imaging. Methods: Over 28 mo, ten consecutive patient […]Read More
A Comparison Between Representative 3D Faces Based on Bi- and Multi-variate and Shape Based Analysis. L Goto, T Huysmans, W Lee, JFM Molenbroek, RHM Goossens.
Date: August 2018. Source: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018, Florence, Italy). Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 824. Springer. Abstract: In Ergonomic product design, designers need to translate anthropometric data of the target population into product dimensions or sizing systems. Currently, sizing systems are often based on […]Read More
Assessing calvarial vault constriction associated with helmet therapy in deformational plagiocephaly. EC Peterson, KB Patel, GB Skolnick, KD Pfeifauf, KN Davidson, MD Smyth, SD Naidoo.
Date: Aug 2018. Source: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. Volume 22: Issue 2: pp 113-221. Objective: Deformational plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (DPB) is a cranial flattening frequently treated in pediatric craniofacial centers. The standard of care for DPB involves patient positioning or helmet therapy. Orthotic therapy successfully reduces cranial asymmetry, but there is concern over whether the […]Read More
Precision Rhinoplasty Using Virtual Surgical Planning and Departmentally-Manufactured, 3D-Printed, Sterilizable, Patient-Specific Anatomic Models. SG Maliha, JM Bekisz, HA Liss, L Witek, PG Coelho, RL Flores.
Date: August 2018. Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Volume 6, Issue 8S, pp 87–88. Goals and Purpose: Rhinoplasty relies on clear patient communication and precise execution of a three-dimensional (3D) plan to achieve optimal results.1 3D printing is becoming more popularized in the medical field as an aid to technical planning, patient communication, and the […]Read More
Three‑Dimensional Evaluation of the Effect of Low‑Level Laser Therapy on Facial Swelling after Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. F Asutay, A Ozcan-Kucuk, H Alan, M Koparal.
Date: August 2018. Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Purpose: : This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a low‑level laser therapy (LLLT) on pain, trismus, and swelling of patients whose impacted 3rd molar tooth was extracted compared to placebo or “sham” treatment and measure volumetrically the edema with a three‑dimensional (3D) surface imaging […]Read More
Thesis. Craniofacial morphology and the use of neonatal non-invasive ventilation therapy. Don He.
Date: August 2018. Source: Thesis. University of British Columbia Library. Craniofacial Science, Dentistry, Faculty of University of British Columbia. Objective: A prospective cohort study with the overall objective to characterize the three-dimensional facial morphology of preterm infants over the course of the first 18 months of corrected age, participating in the Neonatal Follow-up Program of […]Read More
An Articulating Statistical Shape Model of the Human Hand. Van Houtte J et al.
Date: July 2018. Source: International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2018). Advances in Human Factors in Simulation and Modeling. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol 780, pp 433-445. Springer. Abstract: This paper presents a registration framework for the construction of a statistical shape model of the human hand in a standard […]Read More
HDFD – A High Deformation Facial Dynamics Benchmark for Evaluation of Non-Rigid Surface Registration and Classification. G Andrews, S Endean, R. Dyke , Y Lai , G Ffrancon , GKL Tam.
Date: July 2018. Source: Cornell University Library – arXiv.org, Computer Science, Computer Vision. Abstract: Objects that undergo non-rigid deformation are common in the real world. A typical and challenging example is the human faces. While various techniques have been developed for deformable shape registration and classification, benchmarks with detailed labels and landmarks suitable for evaluating […]Read More
Hemimandibular Hyperplasia Correction by Simultaneous Orthognathic Surgery and Condylectomy Under Digital Guidance. Bi Han, X Wang, Z Li et al.
Date: July 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 1563.e1-1563.e18. Objective: Orthognathic surgery with simultaneous condylectomy under digital guidance has been proved to be a feasible method to treat hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and precision of correction of HH by […]Read More
Influence of involuntary facial expressions on reproducibility of 3D stereophotogrammetry in children with and without complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 to 18 months of age. Brons, S; Darroudi, A; Nada, R et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Clinical Oral Investigations. Objective: To assess the influence of involuntary facial expressions on 3D facial stereophotogrammetry reproducibility in children with and without unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) aged 3–18 months. Methods: Three to eight 3D facial images per time point were acquired within 10 min of 31 children with […]Read More
Three‐dimensional facial phenotyping in obstructive sleep apnoea. RWW Lee.
Date: June 2018 Source: Respirology, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 560-561. Abstract: Craniofacial structure is an important anatomical determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). While obesity is the major attributing risk factor for OSA, it is well established that a restricted craniofacial bony skeleton also contributes to a more collapsible upper airway, which is a […]Read More
Assessment of regional asymmetry of the face before and after surgical correction of unilateral cleft lip. D Al-Rudainy, FV Mehendale et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 974-978. Abstract: This study was carried out on 26 unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) cases with mean age 3.6 ± 0.7 months. 3D facial images were captured for each infant 2–3 days before the repair of cleft lip and at 4 […]Read More
Craniomaxillofacial Reconstruction Based on 3D Modeling. GT Grant.
Date: June 2018. Source: Digital Technologies in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, pp 55-65. Abstract: Current treatment planning and reconstruction of craniofacial trauma has been advanced greatly due to the increase in the use of software to convert medical image files in the form of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to 3D reconstructions and ultimately files […]Read More
Upper Lip Asymmetry During Smiling: An Analysis Using Three-Dimensional Images. A Mathis, DM Laskin, E Tüfekçi, C Caricco, SJ Lindauer.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Turkish Orthodontics; 31: 32-6. Objective: : The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional images to determine the presence of upper lip asymmetry at rest and during smiling in a group of individuals with no history of orthodontics or facial cosmetic surgery. Methods: Standardized three-dimensional frontal resting and smiling […]Read More
Female Facial Attractiveness Assessed from Three-Dimensional Contour Lines by University Students. J Jirathamopas, YF Liao, EWC Ko, YR Chen, CS Huang.
Date: May 2018. Source: Dentistry Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, 16. Background: Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines should […]Read More
Estimating age and synthesising growth in children and adolescents using 3D facial prototypes. H Matthews, A Penington, J Clement et al.
Date: May 2018. Source: Forensic Science International, Volume 286, pp 61-69. Highlights: • Describes a framework for age estimation and growth prediction from 3D photographs. • Accuracy of both approaches is assessed. • This work can facilitate person identification and building 3D facial composites. Abstract: 3D facial images are becoming increasingly common. They provide more […]Read More