Depth accuracy of the RealSense F200: Low-cost 4D facial imaging. TC ten Harkel, CM Speksnijder, F van der Heijden, CHG Beurskens, KJAO Ingels, TJJ Maal.
Date: November 2017 Source: nature.com / Scientific Reports Abstract: The RealSense F200 represents a new generation of economically viable 4-dimensional imaging (4D) systems for home use. However, its 3D geometric (depth) accuracy has not been clinically tested. Therefore, this study determined the depth accuracy of the RealSense, in a cohort of patients with a unilateral […]Read More
The influence of dexamethasone on postoperative swelling and neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial. W Semper-Hogg, MA Fuessinger, TW Dirlewanger, CP Cornelius, MC Metzger.
Date: November 2017. Source: Head & Face Medicine 2017 13:19. Background: Orthognathic surgery is associated with considerable swelling and neurosensory disturbances. Serious swelling can lead to great physical and psychological strain. A randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was realized in order to evaluate the effect of a preoperative intravenous dexamethasone injection of 40 mg on […]Read More
Treatment of Craniosynostoses. N Salokorpi.
Date: November 2017. Source: Academic dissertation, Health and Biosciences, University of Oulu. Abstract: This work evaluated the safety and effectiveness of operative techniques used in cranioplastic surgery and outcomes of these surgical methods. In study I the feasibility of endocranial fixation in frontal remodeling surgery for metopic and coronal synostosis was established. Good to excellent […]Read More
Genetics of the human face: Identification of large-effect single gene variants. DJM Crouch, B Winney, WP Koppen, WJ Christmas, K Hutnik, T Day, D Meena, A Boumertit, P Hysi, A Nessa, TD Spector, J Kittler, WF Bodmer.
Date: October 2017 Source: PNAS | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1708207114. Significance: The human face is extraordinarily variable, and the extreme similarity of the faces of identical twins indicates that most of this variability is genetically determined. We have devised an approach to increase the […]Read More
An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation. X Zhang, D Kim, S Shen, et al.
Date: October 2017. Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, pp 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10237-017-0967-6. Abstract: Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical […]Read More
Correspondence of Breast Measurements for Bra Design After Reconstruction Surgery. KM NICKLAUS, J CHU, C LIU, GP REECE, FA MERCHANT, MC FINGERET, MK MARKEY.
Date: October 2017. Source: Proceedings of 3DBODY.TECH 2017. 8th International Conference and Exhibition on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, Montreal, Canada. Abstract: Bra fit is a common quality of life problem for women with breast reconstruction. However, there is a lack of knowledge of how the changes in breast size and shape due to […]Read More
Quantitative Analysis of Localized Changes in Breast Shape. AL Cheong, GP Reece, MK Markey et al.
Date: October 2017. Source: Proceedings of 3DBODY.TECH 2017. 8th International Conference and Exhibition on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, Montreal, Canada. Abstract: Breast reconstruction surgery is an integral part of breast cancer treatment for many patients and has been shown to positively influence patients’ psychosocial adjustment and quality of life. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization and […]Read More
Analysis Methods of the Variation of Facial Size and Shape Based on 3d Face Scan Images. W. Lee, L Goto, J.F.M. Molenbroek, R.H.M. Goossens.
Date: October 2017. Source: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Volume: 61 issue: 1, page(s): 1409-1413. Abstract: 3D scan images have been successfully applied in ergonomic product design. Features of human body parts (e.g., landmarks, measurements, curvatures, surfaces, volumes) extracted from 3D body scan images can be used to analyze variations […]Read More
Three-dimensional analysis of the effect of expansion and/or protraction on oropharyngeal volume and MCA in nonsyndromic CLP/CLCP children. J GAO, N ALREJAYE, S OBEROI.
Date: October 2017. Source: UCSF School of Dentistry Research and Clinical Excellence Day 2017 Program. UCSF students and research trainees present their work through posters and oral presentations to the School of Dentistry community and includes more than 60 presentations and draws more than 400 attendees. Objective: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most […]Read More
A clinical technique for virtual articulator mounting with natural head position by using calibrated stereophotogrammetry. WYH Lam, RTC Hsung, WWS Choi, et al.
Date: September 2017. Source: The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (Online). Abstract: Accurate articulator-mounted casts are essential for occlusion analysis and for fabrication of dental prostheses. Although the axis orbital plane has been commonly used as the reference horizontal plane, some clinicians prefer to register the horizontal plane with a spirit level when the patient is […]Read More
Long-term Outcomes of Subtotal Septal Reconstruction in Rhinoplasty. SA Asher, AS Kakodkar, DM Toriumi.
Date: September 2017 Source: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery. Importance: Significant nasal septal deviation may require complex reconstruction to achieve complete correction. Subtotal septal reconstruction is a method for addressing deviations in the L-strut. Objective: To review the long-term outcomes of subtotal septal reconstruction and provide objective evidence of functional and aesthetic improvement. Design, Setting, and […]Read More
A Three-Dimensional Study of Midfacial Changes Following Le Fort II Distraction With Zygomatic Repositioning in Syndromic Patients. JM Smartt, C Campbell, R Hallac, J Alford, CA Derderian.
Date: September 2017. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003869. Abstract: Le Fort II distraction with zygomatic repositioning introduced the ability to restore central midfacial height and convexity independent of changes in orbital morphology. This study analyzes midfacial and orbital morphology before and after Le Fort II distraction with zygomatic repositioning. All patients who underwent […]Read More
Does shape affect function? Articulatory skills in babbling of infants with deformational plagiocephaly. C Linz, T Schweitzer, LC Brenner, F Kunz, P Meyer-Marcotty, K Wermke.
Date: September 2017. Source: Child’s Nervous System, pp 1–8. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyse pre-speech/early language skills in healthy full-term infants with moderate or severe deformational plagiocephaly (DP) and in infants without any skull asymmetry. Methods: At 6 and 12 months, 51 children with DP (41 moderate, 10 severe cases) […]Read More
Patient-Specific 3D Models for Autogenous Ear Reconstruction. KS Khouri; HA Liss; JM Bekisz; PG Coelho; RL Flores; L Witek.
Date: September 2017. Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 5(9S):174–175, DOI: 10.1097/01.GOX.0000526416.08852.96. Introduction: Autogenous ear reconstruction remains one of the most technically challenging procedures in plastic surgery. Current standards of practice entail tracing the unaffected contralateral ear and using this two-dimensional outline as a surgical model. We present the effectiveness and feasibility of sterilizable, patient-specific and […]Read More
Evaluation of Head Position in Static and Dynamic Three-Dimensional Imaging: a review of the Literature. M Kjærgaard Larsen, TH Thygesen.
Date: August 2017. Source: International Journal of Oral and Craniofacial Science, 3(2), pp 34-38. Background: : The interest in three-dimensional imaging in orthognathic treatment planning has been growing, especially for evaluation of the natural head position. Several three-dimensional devices are available on the market. Three-dimensional evaluation of the patient will probably soon be a standard […]Read More
Validation of a new three-dimensional imaging system using comparative craniofacial anthropometry. FB Naini, S Akram, J Kepinska, U Garagiola, F McDonald, D Wertheim.
Date: August 2017. Source: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (2017) 39: 23. Background: The aim of this study is to validate a new three-dimensional craniofacial stereophotogrammetry imaging system (3dMDface) through comparison with manual facial surface anthropometry. The null hypothesis was that there is no difference between craniofacial measurements using anthropometry vs. the 3dMDface system. Methods: […]Read More
Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients: Do the assessment methods measure the same outcome? DGM Mosmuller, TJ Maal, C Prahl, RA Tan, FJ Mulder, RMF Schwirtz, HCW de Vet, SJ Bergé, JPW Don Griot.
Date: August 2017. Source: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 45(8):1220-1226. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2017.04.004. Objective: For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. Methods: The data and ratings from an […]Read More
4D Movies Capture People in Clothing, Creating Realistic Virtual Try-on. M Black, G Pons-Moll, S Pujades.
Date: August 2017 Source: SIGGRAPH 2017, Los Angeles, CA, USA Overview: Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) have developed technology to digitally capture clothing on moving people, turn it into a 3D digital form, and dress virtual avatars with it. This new technology makes virtual clothing try-on practical. ClothCap uses 4D […]Read More
Hypermasculinised facial morphology in boys and girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its association with symptomatology. DW Tan, SZ Gilani, MT Maybery, A Mian, A Hunt, M Walters, AJO Whitehouse.
Date: August 2017 Source: nature.com SCiENtifiC REporTS | 7: 9348 Abstract: Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure has been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and facial masculinity. By employing three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry, the current study investigated whether prepubescent boys and girls with ASD present increased facial masculinity compared to typically-developing controls. There were two phases to […]Read More
Auricular Composite Grafting in Functional Rhinoplasty. N Rao and DM Toriumi.
Date: August 2017. Source: Facial plast Surg 2017; 33(04): 405-410. Abstract: Surgical correction of defects of the internal nasal valve, ala, vestibule, and sill is widely regarded as a challenge due to concerns of poor outcomes of facial aesthetics and nasal function. Auricular composite grafting is a reliable method of reconstruction of deformities of the […]Read More
Concurrent surface electromyography and force myography classification during times of prosthetic socket shift and user fatigue. J Sanford, R Patterson, DO Popa.
Date: August 2017. Source: Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering. Objective: Surface electromyography has been a long-standing source of signals for control of powered prosthetic devices. By contrast, force myography is a more recent alternative to surface electromyography that has the potential to enhance reliability and avoid operational challenges of surface electromyography during use. […]Read More
The role of Nasoalveolar molding: A 3D Prospective analysis. PY Chou, RR Hallac, T Ajiwe, XJ Xie, YF Liao, AA Kane, YJong Park.
Date: August 2017. Source: nature.com SCiENtifiC REporTS | 7: 9901. Abstract: Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) is commonly employed to reduce the alveolar segments into proper alignment and to improve nasal symmetry in patients with cleft lip and palate. This study examines the periodical progression of NAM treatment over time. 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip […]Read More
Watch Willie Geist get a 3dMD model of himself at the Under Armour factory.
During his tour of Under Armour’s factory with CEO Kevin Plank, Sunday TODAY’s Willie Geist gets a 3D body model of himself created with the 3dMD technology the company uses to make custom clothes for athletes.Read More
A Phenotypically Driven Segmentation for 3-D Facial Morphology: Modularity of 3-D Faces Through Spectral Clustering. D SERO, D VANDERMEULEN, P CLAES.
Date: June 2017 Source: Biological Shape Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ISBSA), pp 249-258. School of Dentistry, UCLA, USA, 19–22 June 2015. Abstract: Facial morphology is the result of mazy interactions between environmental and epigenetic factors that lead to the composition of multiple subunits integrated to function as a whole. In this work, we […]Read More
The Evolution from Static-3D Scanning. 3dMD CEO presents at Wear 2017.
3dMD CEO Chris Lane presents the application of our temporal-3dMDbody (motion) systems to the next generation of wearable technology innovations at the Wear 2017 Conference in San Francisco, USA.Read More
THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVALUATION OF CLASS III TREATMENT OF A 6 YEAR OLD BOY WITH THE FRÄNKEL FUNCTION REGULATOR III MODIFIED APPLIANCE. BK Đokić, A Zhurov, S Richmond, M Ovsenik.
Date: June 2017. Source: 93rd Congress of the European Orthodontic Society 2017. Montreux, Switzerland. Aim: To objectively demonstrate the changes of soft tissues after use of a Fränkel functional regulator III (FFR III) modified appliance (Farčnik, 2008) of a skeletal Class III malocclusion Subject and Methods: Clinical examination of the 6 year old boy revealed […]Read More
Association Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Craniofacial Shape of Children at 12 Months of Age. E Muggli, H Matthews, A Penington, et al.
Date: June 2017 (Online). Source: JAMA Pediatrics, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0778. Question: Is there an association between different levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and child craniofacial shape at 12 months? Findings: This cohort study conducted an objective and sensitive craniofacial phenotype analysis of 415 children, which showed an association between prenatal alcohol exposure and craniofacial shape at almost […]Read More
3dMD presents latest application of its technology at the @IEEEorg Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition Conference in Washington, DC.
3dMD CEO Chris Lane presented the latest advances in temporal-3D (motion) camera systems for human subject input applications that demand anatomical image precision such as the next generation of face, gesture, and body movement recognition innovations @IEEEorg Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition Conference #FG2017.Read More
Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate. J Lee, B Ku, PD Combs et al.
Date: June 2017. Source: 3D Research (2017) 8:19. doi:10.1007/s13319-017-0128-9. Abstract: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group […]Read More
Accuracy of measurements used to quantify cranial asymmetry in deformational plagiocephaly. H Aarnivala, V Vuollo, T Heikkinen, V Harila, L Holmström, P Pirttiniemi, AM Valkama.
Date: May 2017 (ONLINE). Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Objective: Various measurements are used to quantify cranial asymmetry in deformational plagiocephaly (DP), but studies validating cut-off values and comparing the accuracy of such measurements are lacking. In this study, we compared the accuracy of four different measurements in classifying children with and without DP diagnosed […]Read More
The Effects of Objective 3D Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness. CD Hatch, GL Wehby, NL Nidey, LM Moreno Uribe.
Date: May 2017 Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. We evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. Patient and Methods: […]Read More
There is variability in our perception of the standard head orientation. GN Hughes, J Gateño, JD English, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.
Date: May 2017 (On-line). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: The purposes of this study were to determine: (1) whether an observer’s perception of the correct anatomical alignment of the head changes with time, and (2) whether different observers agree on the correct anatomical alignment. To determine whether the perception of the […]Read More
Genome-wide association study of facial morphology reveals novel associations with FREM1 and PARK2. MK Lee, JR Shaffer JR, EJ Leslie, E Orlova, JC Carlson, E Feingold, ML Marazita, SM Weinberg.
Date: April 2017. Source: PLoS One. 12(4): e0176566. Abstract: Several studies have now shown evidence of association between common genetic variants and quantitative facial traits in humans. The reported associations generally involve simple univariate measures and likely represent only a small fraction of the genetic loci influencing facial morphology. In this study, we applied factor […]Read More
Management of Facial Asymmetry with Combination of Orthognathic Surgery and Autologous Fat Transfer. CS Chang, CG Wallace, YC Hsiao, YJ Wang, KT Chen, YR Chen.
Date: April 2017. Source: Cosmetology & Oro Facial Surgery, Volume 3 • Issue 1 • 1000114. Clinical Image: A pan-facial approach is usually best when aiming for a harmonious aesthetic facial outcome. Addressing both skeletal and soі tissue components of the face with simultaneous orthognathic surgery and autologous fat transfer, respectively, satisfies this concept. Facial […]Read More
2017 Facial Expression Experiment at the Science Museum, London
3dMD is excited to be taking part in a fascinating experiment studying facial expressions in collaboration with researchers from Imperial College London as part of the Science Museum’s ongoing Live Science programme from 10 April 2017 – 2 July 2017 in London. During the experiment visitors are asked to make a range of facial expressions […]Read More
Large Scale 3D Morphable Models. J Booth, A Roussos, A Ponniah, D Dunaway, S Zafeiriou.
Date: April 2017. Source: International Journal of Computer Vision, pp 1–22. Abstract: We present large scale facial model (LSFM)—a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) automatically constructed from 9663 distinct facial identities. To the best of our knowledge LSFM is the largest-scale Morphable Model ever constructed, containing statistical information from a huge variety of the human population. […]Read More
Correlation between the incisors axis inclination and the exposure of the vermilion. E Candida, S Summa, I D’Apolito, C Strappa, R Deli.
Date: April 2017. Source: XXIV Congresso Nazionale Collegio dei Docenti Universitari di Discipline Odontostomatologiche, Milano, Italy. Objective: the enhancement of the lips through cosmetic techniques is a popular procedure. In literature there are not many studies which demonstrate all the aspects that influence this area which is so important for patients. Orthodontic biomechanics related to […]Read More
The Technique for 3D Printing Patient-Specific Models for Auricular Reconstruction. RL Flores, H Liss, S Raffaelli, A Humayun, K Khouri, PG Coelho, L Witek.
Date: April 2017. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: Currently, surgeons approach autogenous microtia repair by creating a two-dimensional (2D) tracing of the unaffected ear to approximate a three-dimensional (3D) construct, a difficult process. To address these shortcomings, this study introduces the fabrication of patient-specific, sterilizable 3D printed auricular model for autogenous auricular reconstruction. Methods: […]Read More
A new method for three-dimensional evaluation of the cranial shape and the automatic identification of craniosynostosis using 3D stereophotogrammetry. JW Meulstee1, LM Verhamme, WA Borstlap, F Van der Heijden, GA De Jong, T Xi, SJ Bergé, H Delye, TJJ Maal.
Date: April 2017 (Online). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect which can result in abnormal cranial morphology. Three dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry is potentially an ideal technique for the evaluation of cranial morphology and diagnosis of craniosynostosis because it is fast and harmless. This study presents a new […]Read More
Comparison of two- and three-dimensional assessment methods of nasolabial appearance in cleft lip and palate patients. DGM Mosmuller, TJJ Maal, C Prahl, RA Tan, FJ Mulder, RMF Schwirtz, HCW de Vet, SJ Bergé, JPW Don Griot.
Date: April 2017 (ONLINE) Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Objective: For the assessment of the nasolabial appearance in cleft patients, a widely accepted, reliable scoring system is not available. In this study four different methods of assessment are compared, including 2D and 3D asymmetry and aesthetic assessments. Methods: The data and ratings from an earlier […]Read More
Detailed, accurate, human shape estimation from clothed 3D scan sequences. C Zhang, S Pujades, M Black, G Pons-Moll.
Date: March 2017. Source: researchgate.net (goo.gl/scholar/d1zUSr) Abstract: We address the problem of estimating human body shape from 3D scans over time. Reliable estimation of 3D body shape is necessary for many applications including virtual try-on, health monitoring, and avatar creation for virtual reality. Scanning bodies in minimal clothing, however, presents a practical barrier to these […]Read More
Analysis of Digital Documentation. KH Breuning, CH Kau.
Date: March 2017. Source: Digital Planning and Custom Orthodontic Treatment, First Edition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 4: Analysis of Digital Documentation. Authors: K. Hero Breuning and Chung H. Kau.Read More
Digital design of patient-specific abutments for the retention of implant-retained facial prostheses. C Kincade, L McHutchion, J Wolfaardt.
Date: March 2017. Source: Presented at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Osseointegration, Orlando, Fla, March 2017 and the 6th Triennial Conference for Advanced Digital Technology in Head and Neck Reconstruction, Amiens, France, May 2017. Abstract: The present report describes the digital design of patient-specific milled abutments for the retention of osseointegrated facial […]Read More
Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation. AA Zaidi , BC Mattern, P Claes, B McEcoy, C Hughes, MD Shriver.
Date: March 2017. Source: PLoS Genetics 13(3): e1006616. Abstract: The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed […]Read More
Minimal Invasive Rhinoplasty: Fat Injection for Nasal Dorsum Contouring. S Lin, YC Hsiao, JJ Huang, CS Chang, PKT Chen, JP Chen, LJ Lo, YR Chen.
Date: March 2017. Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Volume 78, Issue 3, p S117–S123. Purpose: To determine the graft retention rate of fat injection rhinoplasty in the nasal dorsum region using 3dMD System. Materials and Methods: Thirteen consecutive patients (12 women and 1 man) treated by the corresponding author (F.C.S.C.) between April of 2014 and […]Read More
The Effects of Transcutaneous and Intraoral Low-Level Laser Therapy After Extraction of Lower Third Molars: A Randomized Single Blind, Placebo Controlled Dual-Center Study. SA Kahraman, S Cetiner, RA Strauss.
Date: March 2017. Source: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. Objective and background: The surgical removal of impacted third molars is one of the most common procedures performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The purpose of this study is to determine whether either transcutaneous or intraoral low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces postoperative pain and assists in the […]Read More
Radiation-free 3D head shape and volume evaluation after endoscopically assisted strip craniectomy followed by helmet therapy for trigonocephaly. G de Jonga, M Tolhuisen, J Meulstee, F van der Heijden, E van Lindert, W Borstlap, T Maal, H Delye.
Date: February 2017 (Online). Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Introduction: Radiation-free 3D post-operative sequential follow-up in craniosynostosis is hindered by the lack of consistent markers restricting evaluation to subjective comparison. However, using the computed cranial focal point (CCFP), it is possible to perform correct sequential image superposition and objective evaluation. We used this technique for […]Read More
A predictive model for obstructive sleep apnea and Down syndrome. BG Skotko et al.
Date: January 2017. Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs frequently in people with Down syndrome (DS) with reported prevalences ranging between 55% and 97%, compared to 1–4% in the neurotypical pediatric population. Sleep studies are often uncomfortable, costly, and poorly tolerated by individuals with DS. The objective of this […]Read More
The impact of aging on the three-dimensional aspect of the hand: a pilot study. IA Hoevenaren, TS Wesselius, JW Meulstee, RD Vreeken, TJJ Maal, DJO Ulrich.
Date: January 2017 (ONLINE). Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. Background: With rejuvenation treatments of the skin gaining more and more popularity, the inquiry for rejuvenation of the hand grows. Until now, no imaging tool exists to analyze the aging process of the hand. Three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry is a reliable technique which is […]Read More