Comparative Analysis of Three-Dimensional Nasal Shape of Casts from Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Treated at Two Institutions Following Rotation Advancement Only (Iowa) or Nasoalveolar Molding and Rotation Advancement in Conjunction With Primary Rhinoplasty (New York). B Hosseinian, MS Rubin et al.
Date: November 2018. Source: Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, Volume 55, issue 10, pp 1350-1357. Objective: To compare 3-dimensional nasal symmetry in patients with UCLP who had either rotation advancement alone or nasoalveolar molding (NAM) followed by rotation advancement in conjunction with primary nasal repair. Methods: Nasal casts of 23 patients with UCLP from 2 institutions were […]Read More
Anatomic approximation approach to correction of transverse facial clefts. RW Tse, RJ Knight, DM Fisher.
Date: November 2018. Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Volume 71, Issue 11, pp 1600-1608. Abstract: Transverse clefts of the oral cavity have significant impacts on both appearance and function. Many methods of repair have been described, but there is no consensus on optimal approach. In addition, dissatisfaction with scars, distortion of appearance, […]Read More
Intelligent Harvesting of High-Precision 4D Data of Human Subjects in a Personalized Digital Economy. Chris Lane.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Chris LANE, 3dMD Ltd. Session: Technical Session 10: Full Body Scanning & ProcessingRead More
Potential of 3D Surface Imaging for Quantitative Analysis of Fat Grafting. MK Markey, F Merchant, GP Reece et al.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Mia K Markey Session: Technical Session 3: 3D Face & Body Scanning in Medicine Abstract: Autologous fat grafting is increasingly employed to address volume asymmetry and contour irregularity following breast reconstruction for breast cancer. However, there are no well-established […]Read More
Pushing the Envelope in Dense-Surface 4D/Motion Capture of the Body, Head, Hands, and Feet. Chris Lane.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Chris LANE, 3dMD Ltd. Session: Technical Session 2: 3D Body Scanning Systems IRead More
A New Method for Finding the Shoulder Complex Rotation Centre Using 3D Body Scanning. SG Rozevink, I Kingma, D Spies et al.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: SG Rozevink Session: Technical Session 1: Medical Applications Abstract: To avoid radiation exposure to the body, the rotation centre of the shoulder complex is often assessed using the Optotrak motion capture system instead of X-ray imaging. Recently, 3D body […]Read More
Challenges with Life Surface Imaging. L Zou, R Richard, J Blythe, N Donos.
Date: October 2018. Source: 9th 3DBODY.TECH Conference and Expo. October 16-17, 2018. Lugano, Switzerland, USA. Presenter: Lifong ZOU Session: Technical Session 3: 3D Face & Body Scanning in Medicine Abstract: Stereo photogrammetry has a clear role in clinical research, treatment planning and effectiveness assessment within the domain of medicine and dentistry. Recently more computational automatic […]Read More
Both the Observer’s Expertise and the Subject’s Facial Symmetry Can Affect Anatomical Position of the Head. PH Sutton, J Gateno, JD English, J Paranilam, JF Teichgraeber, JJ Xia.
Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Purpose: It is easier for us to judge facial deformity when the patient’s head is in anatomic position. The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) if a group of expert observers agree more than a group of non-experts on what is the correct […]Read More
Esthetic evaluation of facial cheek volume: A study using 3D stereophotogrammetry, J Feng, HY Yu, YJ Yin, YQ Yan, Z Wang, D Bai, XL Han.
Date: October 2018. Source: The Angle Orthodontist. Objective: To investigate the influence of cheek volume on facial esthetics judged by orthodontists and non-specialists. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female’s natural and smiling face was captured by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Cheek volume of the 3dMD image was altered to different degrees three-dimensionally. For the natural and smiling […]Read More
Regression of cephalic index following endoscopic repair of sagittal synostosis. NA Pickersgill, GB Skolnick, SD Naidoo, MD Smyth, KB Patel.
Date: October 2018. Source: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics [Online Before Print]. Objective: Metrics used to quantify preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes for patients with sagittal synostosis include cephalic index (CI), the well-known standard, and the recently described adjusted cephalic index (aCI), which accounts for altered euryon location. This study tracks the time course of these […]Read More
Applications and limitations of using patient-specific 3D printed molds in autologous breast reconstruction. S Hummelink, AC Verhulst, TJJ Maal, DJO Ulrich.
Date: October 2018. Source: European Journal of Plastic Surgery, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 571–576. Background: Over the last years, several techniques have been proposed to improve the outcome of autologous breast reconstruction procedures. One of these innovations describes patient-specific, three-dimensional (3D) printed breast molds for intraoperative use based on 3D stereophotogrammetry. In this article, […]Read More
Effect of surrogate design on the measured stiffness of snowboarding wrist protectors. C Adams, D James, T Senior, T Allen, N Hamilton.
Date: September 2018. Source: Sports Engineering, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 217–225. Abstract: In snowboarding, the wrist is the most common injury site, as snowboarders often put their arms out to cushion a fall. This can result in a compressive load through the carpals coupled with wrist hyperextension, leading to ligament sprains or carpal and […]Read More
Reconstruction of the oral commissure in patients with unilateral transverse facial cleft. M Tuersunjiang, X Long, Y Fu, J Ke, H He, J Li.
Date: September 2018. Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 621-625. Abstract: The normal commissure is not a simple joint of the upper and lower lip, but a triangular mucosal area. To reconstruct a symmetrical oral commissure in patients with a unilateral transverse facial cleft, we designed composite vermilion […]Read More
DeepWrinkles: Accurate and Realistic Clothing Modeling. Zorah Lähner, Daniel Cremers, Tony Tung.
Date: September 2018. Source: 15th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Munich, Germany. Abstract: We present a novel method to generate accurate and realistic clothing deformation from real data capture. Previous methods for realistic cloth modeling mainly rely on intensive computation of physics-based simulation (with numerous heuristic parameters), while models reconstructed from visual observations typically […]Read More
Generating 3D Faces using Convolutional Mesh Autoencoders. A Ranjan, T Bolkart, S Sanyal, MJ Black.
Date: September 2018. Source: 15th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Munich, Germany, (pp 704-720). Abstract: Learned 3D representations of human faces are useful for computer vision problems such as 3D face tracking and reconstruction from images, as well as graphics applications such as character generation and animation. Traditional models learn a latent representation of […]Read More
A scale space approach for exploring structure in spherical data. V Vuollo, L Holmström.
Date: September 2018. Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 125, pp 57-69. Highlights: • A novel scale space technique for analyzing spherical data is proposed. • Distributions of normal vector directions computed from a 3dMDhead image are analyzed. • A movie is a convenient way to explore the maps included in a SphereSiZer atlas. […]Read More
Development of three-dimensional facial expression models using morphing methods for fabricating facial prostheses. A Matsuoka, F Yoshioka, S Ozawa, J Takebe.
Date: September 2018. Source: Journal of Prosthodontic Research. Purpose: It is essential to fabricate a best-fit three-dimensional (3D) facial prosthesis model capable of facial expressions. In order for the facial prosthesis to remain in position, especially around marginal areas subject to movement, a new method of making 3D facial expression models using time-series data allowing […]Read More
Non-radiographic severity measurement of pectus excavatum. DP Bliss Jr, NA Vaughan, RM Walk, JA Naiditch, AA Kane, RR Hallac.
Date: September 2018 [Online Before Print]. Source: Journal of Surgical Research, Volume 233, pp 376-380. Background: o avoid the radiation exposure of CT imaging and the expense of CT or MRI studies, we sought to develop a non-radiographic severity measurement of pectus excavatum based on 3D photogrammetric imaging. Methods: Over 28 mo, ten consecutive patient […]Read More
A Comparison Between Representative 3D Faces Based on Bi- and Multi-variate and Shape Based Analysis. L Goto, T Huysmans, W Lee, JFM Molenbroek, RHM Goossens.
Date: August 2018. Source: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018, Florence, Italy). Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 824. Springer. Abstract: In Ergonomic product design, designers need to translate anthropometric data of the target population into product dimensions or sizing systems. Currently, sizing systems are often based on […]Read More
Assessing calvarial vault constriction associated with helmet therapy in deformational plagiocephaly. EC Peterson, KB Patel, GB Skolnick, KD Pfeifauf, KN Davidson, MD Smyth, SD Naidoo.
Date: Aug 2018. Source: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. Volume 22: Issue 2: pp 113-221. Objective: Deformational plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (DPB) is a cranial flattening frequently treated in pediatric craniofacial centers. The standard of care for DPB involves patient positioning or helmet therapy. Orthotic therapy successfully reduces cranial asymmetry, but there is concern over whether the […]Read More
Precision Rhinoplasty Using Virtual Surgical Planning and Departmentally-Manufactured, 3D-Printed, Sterilizable, Patient-Specific Anatomic Models. SG Maliha, JM Bekisz, HA Liss, L Witek, PG Coelho, RL Flores.
Date: August 2018. Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Volume 6, Issue 8S, pp 87–88. Goals and Purpose: Rhinoplasty relies on clear patient communication and precise execution of a three-dimensional (3D) plan to achieve optimal results.1 3D printing is becoming more popularized in the medical field as an aid to technical planning, patient communication, and the […]Read More
Three‑Dimensional Evaluation of the Effect of Low‑Level Laser Therapy on Facial Swelling after Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. F Asutay, A Ozcan-Kucuk, H Alan, M Koparal.
Date: August 2018. Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Purpose: : This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a low‑level laser therapy (LLLT) on pain, trismus, and swelling of patients whose impacted 3rd molar tooth was extracted compared to placebo or “sham” treatment and measure volumetrically the edema with a three‑dimensional (3D) surface imaging […]Read More
Thesis. Craniofacial morphology and the use of neonatal non-invasive ventilation therapy. Don He.
Date: August 2018. Source: Thesis. University of British Columbia Library. Craniofacial Science, Dentistry, Faculty of University of British Columbia. Objective: A prospective cohort study with the overall objective to characterize the three-dimensional facial morphology of preterm infants over the course of the first 18 months of corrected age, participating in the Neonatal Follow-up Program of […]Read More
An Articulating Statistical Shape Model of the Human Hand. Van Houtte J et al.
Date: July 2018. Source: International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2018). Advances in Human Factors in Simulation and Modeling. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol 780, pp 433-445. Springer. Abstract: This paper presents a registration framework for the construction of a statistical shape model of the human hand in a standard […]Read More
Measuring digit lengths with 3D digital stereophotogrammetry: A comparison across methods. A Gremba, SM Weinberg.
Date: July/August 2018. Source: American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 30, Issue 4. Objective: We compared digital 3D stereophotogrammetry to more traditional measurement methods (direct anthropometry and 2D scanning) to capture digit lengths and ratios. Methods: The length of the second and fourth digits was measured by each method and the second‐to‐fourth ratio was calculated. […]Read More
HDFD – A High Deformation Facial Dynamics Benchmark for Evaluation of Non-Rigid Surface Registration and Classification. G Andrews, S Endean, R. Dyke , Y Lai , G Ffrancon , GKL Tam.
Date: July 2018. Source: Cornell University Library – arXiv.org, Computer Science, Computer Vision. Abstract: Objects that undergo non-rigid deformation are common in the real world. A typical and challenging example is the human faces. While various techniques have been developed for deformable shape registration and classification, benchmarks with detailed labels and landmarks suitable for evaluating […]Read More
Hemimandibular Hyperplasia Correction by Simultaneous Orthognathic Surgery and Condylectomy Under Digital Guidance. Bi Han, X Wang, Z Li et al.
Date: July 2018. Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 1563.e1-1563.e18. Objective: Orthognathic surgery with simultaneous condylectomy under digital guidance has been proved to be a feasible method to treat hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and precision of correction of HH by […]Read More
Influence of involuntary facial expressions on reproducibility of 3D stereophotogrammetry in children with and without complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 to 18 months of age. Brons, S; Darroudi, A; Nada, R et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Clinical Oral Investigations. Objective: To assess the influence of involuntary facial expressions on 3D facial stereophotogrammetry reproducibility in children with and without unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) aged 3–18 months. Methods: Three to eight 3D facial images per time point were acquired within 10 min of 31 children with […]Read More
Three‐dimensional facial phenotyping in obstructive sleep apnoea. RWW Lee.
Date: June 2018 Source: Respirology, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 560-561. Abstract: Craniofacial structure is an important anatomical determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). While obesity is the major attributing risk factor for OSA, it is well established that a restricted craniofacial bony skeleton also contributes to a more collapsible upper airway, which is a […]Read More
Assessment of regional asymmetry of the face before and after surgical correction of unilateral cleft lip. D Al-Rudainy, FV Mehendale et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 974-978. Abstract: This study was carried out on 26 unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) cases with mean age 3.6 ± 0.7 months. 3D facial images were captured for each infant 2–3 days before the repair of cleft lip and at 4 […]Read More
Cranial growth in infants. A longitudinal three-dimensional analysis of the first months of life. P Meyer-Marcotty, F Kunz, T Schweitzer et al.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 987-993. Objective: In the first months of life, any deviation from a physiological growth pattern can cause skull deformity. As there has not been any longitudinal three-dimensional (3D) study investigating the physiological growth of the infant skull, the aim of the present […]Read More
Craniomaxillofacial Reconstruction Based on 3D Modeling. GT Grant.
Date: June 2018. Source: Digital Technologies in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, pp 55-65. Abstract: Current treatment planning and reconstruction of craniofacial trauma has been advanced greatly due to the increase in the use of software to convert medical image files in the form of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to 3D reconstructions and ultimately files […]Read More
Upper Lip Asymmetry During Smiling: An Analysis Using Three-Dimensional Images. A Mathis, DM Laskin, E Tüfekçi, C Caricco, SJ Lindauer.
Date: June 2018. Source: Journal of Turkish Orthodontics; 31: 32-6. Objective: : The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional images to determine the presence of upper lip asymmetry at rest and during smiling in a group of individuals with no history of orthodontics or facial cosmetic surgery. Methods: Standardized three-dimensional frontal resting and smiling […]Read More
Female Facial Attractiveness Assessed from Three-Dimensional Contour Lines by University Students. J Jirathamopas, YF Liao, EWC Ko, YR Chen, CS Huang.
Date: May 2018. Source: Dentistry Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, 16. Background: Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines should […]Read More
Estimating age and synthesising growth in children and adolescents using 3D facial prototypes. H Matthews, A Penington, J Clement et al.
Date: May 2018. Source: Forensic Science International, Volume 286, pp 61-69. Highlights: • Describes a framework for age estimation and growth prediction from 3D photographs. • Accuracy of both approaches is assessed. • This work can facilitate person identification and building 3D facial composites. Abstract: 3D facial images are becoming increasingly common. They provide more […]Read More
Evaluation of facial asymmetry in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Correlation between hard tissue and soft tissue landmarks. S Economou, P Stoustrup, KD Kristensen, M Dalstra, A Küseler, T Herlin, TK Pedersen.
Date: May 2018. Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 153, Issue 5, Pages 662–672. Hightlights: • Soft-tissue and hard-tissue asymmetries in JIA patients are correlated. • In JIA patients, asymmetries are most pronounced in the lower facial third. • Glabella had the least deviation. • Pogonion presented the largest level of deviation. […]Read More
Test-retest reliability of smile tasks using three-dimensional facial topography. C Tanikawa, K Takada.
Date: May 2018. Source: Angle Orthodontist, Vol 88, No 3, pp 319–328. Objective: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of three types of facial expression tasks using three-dimensional (3D) facial topography. Methods: Twelve adult volunteers were enrolled in this study. They were instructed to perform three different facial expression tasks: rest posture, posed smile, and maximum […]Read More
Comparison of an unsupervised machine learning algorithm and surgeon diagnosis in the clinical differentiation of metopic craniosynostosis and benign metopic ridge. MJ Cho, RR Hallac, M Effendi, JR Seaward, AA Kane.
Date: April 2018. Source: Scientific Reports, Volume 8, Article number: 6312. Abstract: Metopic suture closure can manifest as a benign metopic ridge (BMR), a variant of normal, to “true” metopic craniosynostosis (MCS), which is associated with severe trigonocephaly. Currently, there is no gold standard for how much associated orbitofrontal dysmorphology should trigger surgical intervention. In […]Read More
Patient-specific 3D Models Providing a 21st Century Approach to Reconstructive Surgery. H Liss, SG Maliha, L Witek et al.
Date: April 2018. Source: Society For Biomaterials 2018 Annual Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, USA. Statement of Purpose: Through the implementation of 3D- printed models in the operating room, plastic surgeons are able to visualize and reconstruct key anatomical features for patients seeking an autogenous ear reconstruction or rhinoplasty. The 3D-printed constructs are sterilizable patient-specific, […]Read More
Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI. A Thaler, MN Geuss, SC Mölbert, KE Giel, S Streuber, J Romero, MJ Black, BJ Mohler.
Date: February 2018. Source: PLOS One. 13(2): e0192152. Abstract: Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted […]Read More
Three-dimensional photography for the evaluation of facial profiles in obstructive sleep apnoea. SW Lin, K Sutherland, YF Liao, PA Cistulli, LP Chuang, YT Chou, CH Chang, CS Lee, LF Li, NH Chen.
Date: February 2018. Source: Respirology, 10.1111/resp.13261. Background and Objective: Craniofacial structure is an important determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome risk. Three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD) is a novel technique which allows quantification of the craniofacial profile. This study compares the facial images of OSA patients captured by 3dMD to three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) and […]Read More
Genetics of the human face: Identification of large-effect single gene variants. DJM Crouch, B Winney, WP Koppen, WJ Christmas, K Hutnik, T Day, D Meena, A Boumertit, P Hysi, A Nessa, TD Spector, J Kittler, WF Bodmer.
Date: January 2018. Source: People of the British Isles, Newsletter Issue 7. Abstract: We have been studying the genetics underlying human facial features since the renewal of our PoBI grant from the Wellcome Trust in 2009. We have been doing this by going back to as many of the original volunteers as we could to […]Read More
Facial morphology and growth following surgery for congenital midline cervical cleft patients. Y Fan, H Matthews, N Kilpatrick, P Claes, J Clement, A Penington.
Date: January 2018 (Online). Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Abstract: Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare condition that consists of a cutaneous midline neck lesion with a sinus extending inferiorly towards the sternum. A fibrous band that extends superiorly to the mandible is a consistent feature of the condition. Restriction […]Read More
3D Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Patients With Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. I Bagante, I Zepa, I Akota.
Date: December 2017. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Rhinoplasty in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) is challenging, and the surgical outcome of the nose is complicated to evaluate. The aim of this study was to assess the nasolabial appearance of patients with UCLP compared with a control group. Design: Cross-sectional […]Read More
UV-GAN: Adversarial Facial UV Map Completion for Pose-invariant Face Recognition. J Deng, S Cheng, N Xue, Y Zhou, S Zafeiriou.
Date: December 2017. Source: Computing Research Repository, Cornell University – arXiv.org, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Abstract: Recently proposed robust 3D face alignment methods establish either dense or sparse correspondence between a 3D face model and a 2D facial image. The use of these methods presents new challenges as well as opportunities for facial texture […]Read More
A three-dimensional method for evaluating changes in lip morphology following correction of functional anterior crossbite. C Jogaki, W Tome, F Kuroyanagi, N Kitai.
Date: December 2017. Source: Orthodontic Waves, Volume 76, Issue 4, Pages 226-231. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to present a three-dimensional method for evaluating changes in lip morphology and to apply the method to the therapy evaluation following the correction of functional anterior crossbite. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five Japanese patients (age: 6 […]Read More
3D Modelling of Facial Skin Surface for 3D Printing. Emma Ekberg.
Date: December 2017. Source: Master’s Thesis 2017:EX056, CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. Abstract:One of the major global health problems today is burns, with an estimate of 256000 deaths each year caused by fires . For more severe burns the probability of infections increases and here the golden standard is to use autologous skin grafts. However, the […]Read More
Modelling of Orthogonal Craniofacial Profiles. H Dai, N Pears, C Duncan.
Date: November 2017. Source: Journal of Imaging 2017, 3(4), 55; doi:10.3390/jimaging3040055. Abstract: We present a fully-automatic image processing pipeline to build a set of 2D morphable models of three craniofacial profiles from orthogonal viewpoints, side view, front view and top view, using a set of 3D head surface images. Subjects in this dataset wear a […]Read More
Embodied Hands: Modeling and Capturing Hands and Bodies Together. J Romero, D Tzionas, MJ Black.
Date: November 2017. Source: ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) – Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2017. Abstract: Humans move their hands and bodies together to communicate and solve tasks. Capturing and replicating such coordinated activity is critical for virtual characters that behave realistically. Surprisingly, most methods treat the 3D modeling and tracking of bodies and […]Read More
Annotated face model-based alignment: a robust landmark-free pose estimation approach for 3D model registration. Y Wu, SK Shah, IA Kakadiaris.
Date: November 2017. Source: Machine Vision and Applications (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00138-017-0887-6. Abstract: Registering a 3D facial model onto a 2D image is important for constructing pixel-wise correspondences between different facial images. The registration is based on a 3 ×× 4 dimensional projection matrix, which is obtained from pose estimation. Conventional pose estimation approaches employ facial landmarks […]Read More