Fourth Generation 3dMD Technology for the World’s Fourth Industrial Revolution.

3dMD has introduced a new company tagline which we believe reflects our progress during the past 15 years. From the outset, 3dMD’s goal was to freeze a 3D instance in time for a living person to support a wide range of activities from corrective healthcare through personal security, entertainment, and size and fit. In 2005 […]

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The virtual patient in dental medicine. T Joda, GO Gallucci.

Date: April 2015. Source: Clinical Oral Implants Research, 26, pp 725–726. Objectives: The aim of this Short Communication was to present a workflow for the superimposition of intraoral scan (IOS), cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and extraoral face scan (EOS) creating a 3D virtual dental patient. Material and Methods: As a proof-of-principle, full arch IOS, preoperative […]

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Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males. SM Weinberg, TE Parsons, ZD Raffensperger.

Date: February 2015. Source: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, 18(1):21-6. Objectives: Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit […]

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Three-dimensional changes in nose and upper lip volume after orthognathic surgery. B van Loon, N van Heerbeek, F Bierenbroodspot, L Verhamme, T Xi, MJJ de Koning, KJAO Ingels, SJ Bergé, TJJ Maal.

Date: January 2015 Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 44(1):83-9. Abstract: Orthognathic surgery aims to improve both the function and facial appearance of the patient. Translation of the maxillomandibular complex for correction of malocclusion is always followed by changes to the covering soft tissues, especially the nose and lips. The purpose of this study […]

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In-vivo quantification of human breast deformation associated with the position change from supine to upright. H Khatam, GP Reece, MC Fingeret, MK Markey, K Ravi-Chandar.

Date: January 2015. Source: Medical Engineering and Physics, 37(1):13-22. Abstract: Stereophotographic imaging and digital image correlation are used to determine the variation of breast skin deformation as the subject orientation is altered from supine to upright. A change in subject’s position from supine to upright can result in significant stretches in some parts of the […]

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Reliability and validity of measurements of facial swelling with a stereophotogrammetry optical three-dimensional scanner. WJ van der Meer, PU Dijkstra, A Visser, A Vissink, Y Ren.

Date: December 2014 Source: British Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 52(10):922-7. Abstract: Volume changes in facial morphology can be assessed using the 3dMDface® stereo-optical 3-dimensional scanner, which uses visible light and has a short scanning time. Its reliability and validity have not to our knowledge been investigated for the assessment of facial swelling. Our aim […]

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Nasal changes after orthognathic surgery for patients with prognathism and Class III malocclusion: Analysis using three-dimensional photogrammetry. S Worasakwutiphong; YF Chuang; HW Chang; HH Lin; PJ Lin; LJ Lo.

Date: December 2014. Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. Background/Purpose. Orthognathic surgery alters the position of maxilla and mandible, and consequently changes the nasal shape. The nasal change remains a concern to Asian patients. The aim of this study was to measure the nasal changes using a novel three-dimensional photographic imaging method. Methods. A […]

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The Influence of Using Digital Diagnostic Information on Orthodontic Treatment Planning: A Pilot Study. AC Dunbar, D Bearn, G McIntyre

Date: December 2014 Source: Journal of Healthcare Engineering, Volume 5, Number 4. Abstract. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether orthodontic treatment planning is reproducible when carried out using digital records compared with clinical examinations or using standard records. The study also assessed patients’ opinion of face-to-face consultations and potential use of […]

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Quantitative Assessment of Facial Asymmetry Using Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging in Adults: Validating the Precision and Repeatability of a Global Approach. D Kornreich, AA Mitchell, BD Webb, I Cristian, EW Jabs.

Date: December 2014. Source: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. Objective: Comparison of global versus landmark analyses of facial asymmetry using three-dimensional photogrammetry to establish a precise method for evaluating facial asymmetry. Design: The landmark-based approach utilized anthropometric data points. Our global approach involved registration of mirror images, independent of a midplane, to calculate a root mean […]

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Digital capture, design & manufacturing of an extra-oral device for a clarinet player suffering from Bell’s palsy. C Aita-Holmes, GT Grant, P Liacouras, WO Wilson Jr.

Date: November 2014. Source: 61st Meeting of the American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics in New Orleans, USA. Poster Presentation: Digital capture, design & manufacturing of an extra-oral device for a clarinet player suffering from Bell’s palsy. Authors: Cynthia Aita-Holmes, DMD; Gerald T. Grant, DMD, MS; Peter Liacouras, PhD; William O. Wilson, Jr., DDS, MS

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The Use of Tridimensional Imaging to Evaluate Volumetric Changes in Maxillofacial Patients: A Case Report. GF Lagreca, S Morgan.

Date: November 2014. Source: Meeting of the American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics in New Orleans, USA. Poster Presentation: The Use of Tridimensional Imaging to Evaluate Volumetric Changes in Maxillofacial Patients: A Case Report. Authors: Gabriela F. Lagreca, DDS; Sujey Morgan, DDS, MS, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine.

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Recording of Natural Head Position Using Stereophotogrammetry: A New Technique and Reliability Study. TC Hsung, J Lo, TS Li, LK Cheung.

Date: November 2014 Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 72(11): 2256-61. Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to record physical references and orient digital mesh models to a natural head position using stereophotogrammetry (SP). The first step was to record the digital mesh model of a hanging reference board […]

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Surgical Planning: 2D to 3D. PK Patel, LP Zhao, JW Ferraro.

Date: October 2014 Source: Ferraro’s Fundamentals of Maxillofacial Surgery. Springer New York, pp 331-367. Abstract: Surgeons and orthodontists are faced with the practical problem of objectively assessing a patient’s dentofacial skeletal deformity. Maxillofacial surgical planning is a multilevel process. It involves incorporating the clinical assessment of the soft-tissue envelop, the underlying facial skeletal structures, and […]

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The Latest Applications of Temporal-3D (4D) to Support Clinical Initiatives. CR Lane.

Date: October 2014. Source: 3D Body Scanning Conference 2014, Lugano, Switzerland. Abstract: In 2011 3dMD and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Dentistry, were awarded a ground-breaking US NIH Grant (STTR Grant No. 2R42DE019742-02) to study the facial dynamics of children who had received corrective treatment for facial conditions. The recruitment […]

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Visualization and Quantification of Female Breast Morphology During Breast Reconstruction. AL Cheong, GP Reece, MC Fingeret, F Merchant.

Date: October 2014. Source: 3D Body Scanning Conference, Lugano, Switzerland. Abstract: Breast reconstruction is an integral part of the breast cancer treatment process and has shown to positively impact the patient’s psychosocial adjustment and quality of life. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization and quantification of the breast for different types of reconstruction procedures can allow for a […]

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Establishment of Reference Frame for Sequential Facial Biometrics. L Zou, P Hao, M McCarthy

Date: October 2014. Source: 3D Body Scanning Conference 2014, Lugano, Switzerland. Abstract: Facial biometrics as an objective, accurate, living parts measurement methodology, is widely used in assisting diagnose and treatment plan within the practice of medicine and dentistry. It is particularly popular that the quantification of changes before and after a clinical intervention. However the […]

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Multi-View 3D Data Fusion for Visualization of the Inframammary Fold. LJ Zhao, GP Reece, MC Fingeret, F Merchant.

Date: October 2014. Source: 3D Body Scanning Conference 2014, Lugano, Switzerland. Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is finding increasing use in plastic surgery, both for breast reconstruction after oncologic surgery and for cosmetic augmentation/reduction procedures. The upright view image is conventionally used for surgical planning and outcome assessment. However, the inframammary fold (IMF), a critical landmark […]

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Variation and signatures of selection on the human face. J Guo, J Tan, Y Yang, H Zhou, S Hu, A Hashan, N Bahaxar, S Xu, TD Weaver, L Jin, M Stoneking, K Tang.

Date: October 2014 Source: Journal of Human Evolution. Volume 75, pp 143–152. Abstract: There has been much debate about why humans throughout the world differ in facial form. Previous studies of human skull morphology found levels of among-population differentiation that were comparable to those of neutral genetic markers, suggesting that genetic drift (neutral processes) played […]

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Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics. K Kuru, M Niranjan, Y Tunca, E Osvank, T Azim.

Date: October 2014. Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 62(2):105-18. Background: In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype–phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype–phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided […]

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Nike Takes Us to (Hyper)School. Just For Kicks News Post.

Date: October 9, 2014. Source: http://lifeofdad.com/blog_post.php?pid=18439. 3dMD customer Nike held Hyperschool in New York City to demonstrate their latest innovations in product development. “Nike designers, researchers and developers start with athlete insights in order to determine their needs. From there, they unlock these athlete insights in the Nike Explore Team Sport Research Lab by looking at athlete […]

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Nike Takes Us to (Hyper)School. MANjr News Post.

Date: October 7, 2014. Source: MANjr News Post http://manjr.com/2014/lifestyle/nike-takes-us-to-hyperschool/. 3dMD customer Nike held Hyperschool in New York City today to demonstrate their latest innovations in product development.

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Can I Recognize My Body’s Weight? The Influence of Shape and Texture on the Perception of Self. I Piryankova, J Stefanucci, J Romero, S de la Rosa, M Black, B Mohler.

Date: September 2014. Source: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, Vol. 11, No. 3, Article 13. Abstract: The goal of this research was to investigate women’s sensitivity to changes in their perceived weight by altering the body mass index (BMI) of the participants’ personalized avatars displayed on a large-screen immersive display. We created the personalized avatars […]

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Towards an enhanced ERP speller based on the visual processing of face familiarity. SK Yeom; S Fazli; KR Müller; SW Lee.

Date: August 2014 Source: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE in Chicago. Abstract. In this study, a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) system using random set presentation pattern and employing the effect of face familiarity has been proposed and developed. While the effect of face […]

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Learning to Rank the Severity of Unrepaired Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity on 3D Mesh Data. J Wu, R Tse, LG Shapiro.

Date: August 2014. Source: Int. Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2014, Stockholm, Sweden. © IEEE. Pages 460-464. Abstract: Cleft lip is a birth defect that results in deformity of the upper lip and nose. Its severity is widely variable and the results of treatment are influenced by the initial deformity. Objective assessment of severity would […]

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Perceptual differences between men and women: A 3D facial morphometric perspective. S Gilani, A Mian.

Date: August 2014 Source: Int. Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2014, Stockholm, Sweden. © IEEE. pp 2413 – 2418. Abstract: Understanding the features employed by the human visual system in gender classification is considered a critical step towards improving machine based gender classification systems. We propose the use of 3D Euclidean and geodesic distances between […]

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Lower Lateral Cartilage Repositioning Objective Analysis Using 3-Dimensional Imaging. A Bared, A Rashan, B Caughlin, D Toriumi.

Date: Jul-Aug 2014 Source: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery, 16(4):261-7. Importance. In recent years, with the advent of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, it has become possible to objectively measure rhinoplasty results. However, few studies have used 3D imaging software to assess postoperative rhinoplasty results of the nasal tip. Objective. To analyze nasal tip volumes of patients […]

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Analysis of Digital Measures of Cranial Vault Asymmetry for Assessment of Plagiocephaly. G Skolnick, S Naidoo, K Patel, A Woo.

Date: July 2014. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 25(4):1178-82. Background: Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is an asymmetry of the skull caused by extrinsic compression. With the advent of the Back to Sleep campaign, DP is of increased interest to parents and healthcare providers. Traditionally, this asymmetry has been assessed by caliper measurements. However, little consensus exists […]

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Positional Plagiocephaly: Experience with a Passive Orthotic Mattress. P Sillifant, P Vaiude, S Bruce, D Quirk, A Sinha, S Burn, D Richardson, C Duncan.

Date: July 2014. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 25(4):1365-8. Abstract: Positional plagiocephaly (deformational or occipital plagiocephaly) is the most common head-shape deformity, which is presented to specialist craniofacial units. The aim of management is to reduce pressure on the affected area in the expectation that brain growth will drive normalization of the head shape. Current […]

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Quantitative Evaluation of the Facial Morphology of a Tolteca Figurine from Mexico using Geometric Morphometric Approaches. JM Starbuck.

Date: June 2014. Source: International Journal of Morphology. Volume 32, Number 2, pp 499–509. Summary: Morphometric approaches can be combined with 2D or 3D imaging to quantitatively evaluate craniofacial medical conditions depicted in material culture and to learn more about the culture being studied. A terra-cotta figurine (circa 500 A.D.) from the Tolteca culture of […]

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Exploratory genotype–phenotype correlations of facial form and asymmetry in unaffected relatives of children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate. SF Miller, SM Weinberg, NL Nidey, DK Defay, ML Marazita, GL Wehby, LM Moreno Uribe.

Date: June 2014 Source: Journal of Anatomy, Volume 224, Issue 6, pp 688-709. Abstract: Family relatives of children with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) who presumably carry a genetic risk yet do not manifest overt oral clefts, often present with distinct facial morphology of unknown genetic etiology. This study investigates distinct […]

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Reliability of Nasolabial Anthropometric Measures Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry in Infants with Unrepaired Unilateral Cleft Lip. R Tse, L Booth, K Keys, B Saltzman, E Stuhaug, H Kapadia, C Heike.

Date: April 2014 Source: Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgery, Volume 133, Issue 4, p 530e–542e. Background: Surgical and orthodontic treatment of unilateral cleft lip +/– palate can produce dramatic changes in nasolabial form; however, the lack of ideal methods with which to objectively document three-dimensional form limits the […]

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Three-Dimensional Soft Tissue Change of the Malar Region with High Le-Fort 1 Advancement: Implications for Aesthetic Malar Contouring. D Morris, B Rosett, L Zhao, and P Patel.

Date: April 2014. Source: The Aesthetic Meeting 2014, San Francisco, USA. Abstract: While orthognathic procedures are performed for a number of clinical scenarios, a fundamental goal is to reposition the facial skeletal components so as to improve both function as well as aesthetics. For patients with malar hypoplasia, modification of the traditional Le Fort 1 […]

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Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA. P Claes, DK Liberton, K Daniels, KM Rosana, EE Quillen, LN Pearson, B McEvoy, M Bauchet, AA Zaidi, W Yao, H Tang, GS Barsh, DM Absher, MD Shriver.

Date: March 2014 Source: PLOS Genetics. Abstract: Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships […]

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The perception of facial asymmetry using 3-dimensional simulated images. G McAvinchey, F Maxim, B Nix, J Djordjevic, R Linklater, G Landini.

Date: March 2014. Source: The Angle Orthodontist (Online). Objective: To investigate the perception of facial asymmetry in young adults to identify the amounts of chin asymmetry that can be regarded as normal and may benefit from correction. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D) images of 56 individuals of mixed ethnicity were obtained and used to produce […]

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Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype. BJ Smith, N Nidey, SF Miller, LMM Uribe, CL Baum, GS Hamilton, GL Wehby, M Dunnwald.

Date: March-April 2014. Source: Wound Repair and Regeneration, Volume 22, Issue 2, pages 228–238. Abstract: In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging […]

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The cluster assessment of facial attractiveness using fuzzy neural network classifier based on 3D Moiré features. WC Chiang, HH Lin, CS Huang, LJ Lo, SY Wan.

Date: March 2014. Source: Pattern Recognition. Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 1249–1260. Abstract: Facial attractiveness has long been argued upon varied emphases by philosophers, artists, psychologists and biologists. A number of studies empirically investigated how facial attractiveness was influenced by 2D facial characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness and golden ratio. However, few implementations of facial […]

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3D asymmetry of operated children with oral clefts. I Bugaighis, CR Mattick, B Tiddeman, R Hobson.

Date: February 2014. Source: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, 17(1):27-37. Objectives: To explore three-dimensional (3D) facial asymmetry differences in operated children with oral clefts and to compare the results with a control group. Setting and Sample Population: The sample comprised one hundred and three 8- to 12-year-old children: 40 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP); 23 […]

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Developing a 3D colour image reproduction system for additive manufacturing of facial prostheses. K Xiao, F Zardawi, R van Noort, JM Yates.

Date: February 2014. Source: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Volume 70, Issue 9-12, pp 2043–2049. Abstract:  In this study, a new 3D colour image reproduction system is proposed for the automated and accurate additive manufacturing of soft tissue facial prostheses. A framework of 3D colour image reproduction was defined and a protocol for each […]

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Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry: A Novel Method in Volumetric Measurement of Infantile Hemangioma. DJJ Hermans, TJJ Maal, SJ Bergé, CJM Vleuten.

Date: January 2014. Source: Pediatric Dermatology. Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 118-122. Abstract: Accurate and objective measurement of volume changes in infantile hemangiomas (IHs) is essential in routine clinical practice and clinical studies, particularly in the changing therapeutic landscape after the discovery of propranolol. Several bedside techniques for volume measurement have been described in the […]

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Autism: Comparative Genomics and Interactomics. C Barth, N Bishop.

Date: January 2014 Source: Comprehensive Guide to Autism, pp 2853–2880. New York: Springer, 2014. Abstract: Many common human neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia, have complex genetics and inheritance patterns. While understanding the molecular mechanisms of single-gene disorders is comparatively straightforward, complex diseases are, by their […]

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Detecting Genetic Association of Common Human Facial Morphological Variation Using High Density 3D Image Registration. S Peng, J Tan, S Hu, H Zhou, J Guo, L Jin, K Tang.

Date: December 2013. Source: PLoS Computational Biology, Public Library of Science. Abstract: Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can […]

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BBC: Defining the most ‘normal’ shape of a human skull.

Date: 22 November 2013 Source: BBC News Article: Defining the most ‘normal’ shape of a human skull Reconstructive surgery for people born with a misshapen skull is one of medicine’s most complicated challenges. Part of the problem for surgeons is defining what a normal head actually looks like.  A team of Liverpool-based surgeons, and artists, […]

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Customer Care

3dMD’s Customer Care organization is committed to helping its customers through the entire process – from defining the initial application requirements through ongoing support. With a proven delivery methodology, the 3dMD team of experts not only delivers the right solution, but can also tailor comprehensive training and support programs that are sure to meet ongoing […]

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Indiana University visualization experts help doctors diagnose fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with 3dMD

Date: October 10, 2013 Source: Indiana University, IT News & Events BLOOMINGTON, Ind. — Indiana University received a $125,000 grant renewal from the National Institutes of Health for ongoing research into detecting fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, a leading but preventable cause of birth defects. IU has been engaged in the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol […]

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Be Part of the Alder Hey Children’s Hospital Headspace Project and Change Lives!

Liverpool, United Kingdom (24-September-13): Alder Hey Children’s Hospital and FACT are looking for volunteers to take part in a groundbreaking project which will impact on the future development of craniofacial surgery. The Headspace project, created by Alder Hey in conjunction with FACT and associated artists will develop a comprehensive database of human head shapes using […]

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Image Fusion in Craniofacial Virtual Reality Modeling Based on CT and 3dMD Photogrammetry. P Xin; H Yu; H Cheng; S Shen; SGF Shen.

Date: September 2013. Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1573–1576. Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a craniofacial virtual reality model by image fusion of 3-dimensional (3D) CT models and 3dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface. Methods: A CT scan and stereophotography were performed. The 3D […]

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Presentation: Use of Digital Design. A Paradigm Shift in Surgical Planning for Craniofacial Surgery…Integrating Clinical Data with Static 3D Images. PR Shetye.

Date: September 2013. Source: International Society of Craniofacial Surgery 15th International Congress 2013, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA. Presentation: Use of Digital Design. A Paradigm Shift in Surgical Planning for Craniofacial Surgery… Integrating Clinical Data with Static 3D Images. Speaker: Pradip R. Shetye, DDS NYU Medical Center.

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BBC News: Cardiff University uses 3D scans to help facial surgery.

Date: 2 August 2013 Source: BBC News News: Cardiff University uses 3D scans to help facial surgery. Patients who need facial surgery and those recovering from strokes could benefit from world-leading research of analysing facial movements in 3D. Scientists at Cardiff University are using cutting-edge face scanners developed by American firm 3dMD. The technology can […]

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Cardiff Scientists and 3dMD Enter a New Dimension in 3D/4D Facial Imaging.

Anaheim, California (23-July-13): A team of Cardiff University clinicians and computer scientists can, for the first time, carry out facial movement research and transform the way patients needing facial surgery are assessed and monitored thanks to a new state-of-the-art 3D surface motion imaging system from 3dMD (3dMD exhibiting at #SIGGRAPH2013 Booth 226). Working alongside the […]

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Improved Detection of Landmarks on 3D Human Face Data. S Liang; S Weinberg; L Shapiro.

Date: July 2013. Source: IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Annual Conference. Abstract: Craniofacial researchers make heavy use of established facial landmarks in their morphometric analyses. For studies on very large facial image datasets, the standard approach of manual landmarking is very labor intensive. With the goal of producing 20 established landmarks, we have […]

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