Temporal-3dMD Systems (4D)

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Temporal-3dMD Systems (4D)

As a pioneer in the development of high-precision 3D surface imaging technology, 3dMD offers a range of 3dMD temporal-based (4D) systems to document and quantify anatomical dense surface movement, function, pose, and expression.

The first-generation of ultra-fast temporal-3dMD systems were commercially available in 2005. These systems enabled researchers to capture an ordered sequence of 3dMD images over a period of time at rates of up to 60 Hz (3D frames per second), which advanced the study of dense surface deformations such as skin flow to submillimeter anatomical-precision. 3dMD customers were able to better quantify human interaction with an inanimate object (clothing, instruments, etc.), as well as start inferring internal behaviors (skeletal, respiratory, etc.). Moreover human interaction between two subjects was easily documented and measured when multiple temporal 3dMD systems were synchronized.

The next advancement occurred with the delivery of the world’s first temporal-3D dense surface full body performance capture system to the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen, Germany (MPI). This forward-thinking 3dMD customer required true anatomical-3D documentation of soft tissue behavior, which to date had not been possible with the traditional marker-based motion capture (MoCap) systems. With the temporal 3dMDbody22.u System, the MPI research team is able to examine a dynamic series or individual 3dMD frames to derive their optical flow and shape-class deformation algorithms.

As a result of the technology innovation delivered to the Max Planck Institute and after a series of customer trials, 3dMD introduced its latest generation image capture software platform and product architecture in January 2016. 3dMD’s latest platform provides a robust foundation for its complete line of static- and temporal-3D products to support future upgrade paths to rapidly advancing research requirements by increasing system frame rates and system coverage to accommodate new and evolving subject performance routines.

Today 3dMD’s range of temporal-3D systems incorporate a non-intrusive, LED-based lighting system that promotes eye-safety and subject comfort; eliminate the need for any special surface makeup or preparation; and minimize distraction stimuli to promote the most natural performance from a subject. Never before has there been an opportunity to objectively quantify the anatomical movement and expression of adults, infants, and even restless children, of all skin tones in a natural, non-obtrusive environment. Each 3dMD frame is rendered separately and maintains a consistent accuracy to ensure no jitter on the resultant 3D soft tissue models. Elimination of jitter allows a smooth sequential playback with integrity building a platform for highly sophisticated dense motion analysis of the resultant surface deformations.

3dMD’s temporal-3D range of systems include the ultra-fast 60 Hz (or .u) series and a practical temporal (or .t) series for use in a busy clinical and/or R&D environment. Each temporal-3dMD system listed below will be classified in one of these categories.

3dMDface.u System

 

Ultra-Fast Capture Speed: 60 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generate a series of hi-fidelity 190-degree facial models with movement
Capture and track exact and subtle facial expressions and function and freeze actual instances of time for further analysis
Configuration: Two modular units of six machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized in a capture series
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
Eye-Safe: Optics based technology
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
3D Image Processing: Server-based multiprocessor rendering option
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDtrio.u, 3dMDbody.u Systems

3dMDface.t System

 

Temporal-3D Capture: Single 3D image or up to 7 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generates a series of 190-degree (ear-to-ear) facial models over a period of time
Captures facial expression, function, and smile, and freezes actual 3D instances of time for further analysis
Temporal Selection: Enables the operator to select the best positioned images of the subject with the most appropriate facial expressions prior to 3D rendering. Only process the optimal image results
Configuration: Two modular units of six machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized in a capture series
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision dense surface with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
Eye-Safe: Optics based technology
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDtrio.t, 3dMDhead.t, 3dMDtorso.t, 3dMDthorax.t, 3dMDflex.t, 3dMDbody.t Systems

3dMDhead.t System

 

Featured Customer: MIUK Ltd at Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Temporal-3D Capture: Single 3D image or up to 7 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generates a series of 360-degree head models over a period of time
Captures facial expression, function, and smile; freezes actual 3D instances of time for further analysis; and documents the size and shape of the patient’s craniofacial complex and cranial geometry
Temporal Selection: Enables the operator to select the best positioned images of the subject with the most appropriate facial expressions prior to 3D rendering. Only process the optimal image results
Configuration: Five modular units of 15 machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized for a dynamic capture sequence
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision dense surface with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
Non-Invasive Alternative to CT: Accurately document the patient’s head shape noninvasively throughout the treatment cycle
3D Printer Compatibility: 3dMD images automatically export in all industry standard file formats for ease of 3D printing
Orthotic Application Support: Ability to capture babies/infants in 3D with conditions such as positional plagiocephaly, craniosynostosis, and others
Eye-Safe: Optics based technology
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDflex.t, 3dMDbody.t Systems

3dMDtorso.t System

 

Temporal-3D Capture: Single 3D image or up to 7 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generates a series of 190-degree torso models over a period of time
Captures movement, breast dynamics, posture, pose, and freezes actual 3D instances of time for further analysis
Temporal Selection: Enables the operator to select the best positioned images of the subject with the most appropriate pose and posture prior to 3D rendering. Only process the optimal image results
Configuration: Four modular units of 12 machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized for a dynamic capture sequence
Designed to provide more 3D surface coverage for clinics that have patients who require breast reconstruction and/or breast reduction procedures. Similar to 3dMD’s custom 3dMDtorso System at the University of Texas MD Anderson, 3dMD has the capability to build a custom set-up that meets the customer’s specific capture requirements.
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision dense surface with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
3D Printer Compatibility: 3dMD images automatically export in all industry standard file formats for ease of 3D printing
Eye-Safe: Optics based technology
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDflex.t, 3dMDbody.t Systems

3dMDthorax.t System

 

Temporal-3D Capture: Single 3D image or up to 7 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generates a series of 360-degree thorax models over a period of time
Captures movement, breast dynamics, posture, pose, and freezes actual 3D instances of time for further analysis
Temporal Selection: Enables the operator to select the best positioned images of the subject with the most appropriate pose and posture prior to 3D rendering. Only process the optimal image results
Configuration: Four (or five) modular units of 12 (or 15) machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized for a dynamic capture sequence
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision dense surface with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
Eye-Safe: Optics based technology
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDflex.t, 3dMDbody.t Systems

3dMDbody.u System

3dMDdynamic Body System P

 

Ultra-Fast Capture Speed: 60 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generate a series of hi-fidelity 360-degree full body models with movement
Capture and track a subject’s deliberate or subtle body movements and routines
Quantify soft tissue adjustment (muscle or fat) to each of these movements
Evaluate a subject’s posture, balance, and performance
Assess a subject’s interaction with products or the environment
Configuration: 9 to 22-plus modular units of 27 to 66-plus machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized in a capture series
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision with a linear accuracy range of 0.5mm or better
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
Eye-Safe: Optics based technology
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required
3D Image Processing: Server based multiprocessor rendering option
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDbody.u Systems with additional pose configurations

3dMDbody.t System

 

Temporal-3D Capture: Single 3D image or up to 7 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generate a series of 360-degree full body models over a period of time
Capture posture, function, pose, etc., and freezes actual 3D instances of time for further analysis
Evaluate a subject’s posture, balance, and performance
Assess a subject’s interaction with products or the environment
Temporal Selection: Enables the operator to select the best positioned images of the subject with the most appropriate pose and posture prior to 3D rendering. Only process the optimal image results
Configuration: Ranging from nine (9) to 22-plus modular units of 15 to 66-plus machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized for a dynamic capture sequence
Episode of Encounter: Supports an efficient mass enrollment workflow
Subject Pose Options: Highly flexible system configuration that allows for a large number of variations in modular camera unit positioning
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision dense surface with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDbody.t Systems with additional pose configurations

3dMDfoot.t System

 

Temporal-3D Capture: Single 3D image or up to 7 3D frames per second for several minutes of capture at highest resolution
Subject Capture: Generates a series of 360-degree foot models (including the sole) over a period of time.
Captures a series of foot articulations from a subject walking across a platform and freezes actual 3D instances of time for further analysis
Temporal Selection: Enables the operator to select the best positioned images of the subject’s foot with the most appropriate articulation prior to 3D rendering. Only process the optimal image results
Configuration: Ranging from five modular units of 15 machine vision cameras and an industrial-grade LED system synchronized for a dynamic capture sequence
Geometry Accuracy: High-precision dense surface with a linear accuracy range of
Precision: Temporal precision with no 3D jitter on playback
3D Surface Mesh Integrity: Automatically generates a continuous 3D polygon surface mesh with a single x,y,z coordinate system from all synchronized stereo pairs. No stitching of images required.
Economical Upgrade Path to: 3dMDflex.t, 3dMDbody.t Systems

3dMDtempus Surface Tracking Software

In addition to providing a playback sequence of individual 3dMD frames each with full integrity, the 3dMDtempus Software enables both discrete and ultra-dense analysis techniques of the subject’s skin dynamics with posture, pose, and functional movement. The user simply defines the anatomical regions of interest, or xyz points, to track through the sequence on the 3D surface of a single 3dMD reference frame and the 3dMD software will generate a coordinate map throughout the sequence within a correct temporal context.

The 3dMDtempus Software provides the bridge between automated traditional point tracking and sparse meshing techniques to expressing movement in terms of dense surface deformation and classification enabling a new paradigm of tools which permit comparative regional behavior to be enumerated. Feature points to track can be uniformly sampled, detected for generic facial features, or defined by a mesh mask. This capability enables a user to quantify and model the essential subtleties of human behavior and/or reactions to stimuli.

The 3dMDtempus Software generates thousands of individual surface points to be transitionally tracked as xyz coordinates from one 3dMD frame to another in six degrees of freedom within the context of the subject’s yaw, pitch, and roll movements. This level of anatomical tracking precision enables clinicians and researchers to accurately measure and quantify anatomical function, expressions from extreme to micro, and soft tissue deformations in a sequence or isolated.